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Review Article
Revised taxonomic check list of the Eurasiatic species of the subtribe Poliina (Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Hadenini)
expand article infoZoltán Varga, Gábor Ronkay§, László Ronkay|
‡ Department of Evolutionary Zoology and Human Biology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary
§ Heterocera Press, Budapest, Hungary
| Department of Zoology, Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary
Open Access

Abstract

The revised checklist of the subtribe Poliina Hampson, 1902 is presented; one new genus, Multisigna gen. n., three new subgenera (Atropolia, Leuconephropolia and Protopolia subgen. n.) and a new species (Polia (Atropolia) posterodiluta sp. n.) are described. The taxonomic position of the recently described subgenus Metallopolia is discussed. The subtribe Pachetrina Beck, 1996 is synonymised with Poliina; two genera (Kollariana Hacker, 1996 and Spiramater McCabe, 1980) are transferred to the subtribe Mamestrina Hampson, 1902. A number of lectotype designations and new combinations are given; the newly designated lectotypes and the genitalia of the disputed taxa are illustrated.

Key Words

Classification, subtribes, Poliina genera, Pachetrina, synonyms, Mamestrina, genital structures, new genus, new subgenera, new combinations, lectotype designations, illustrations

Introduction

The subtribe Poliina Hampson, 1902 was originally defined as “Polia complex” by McCabe (1980) based on external and genital characters of both sexes. However, in this review, some genera of Mamestrina Hampson, 1902 (in original form: Mamestrinae) were also included to this “complex”. Later, Poliina was shortly characterised and separated from the closely related subtribe Mamestrina by Beck (1996). Subsequently, in the volume 4 of the Noctuidae Europaeae series (Hadeninae I.) Hackeret al. (2002) re-defined the subtribe Poliina Beck, 1996 and also provided a short differential diagnosis of the subtribes Poliina and Mamestrina Beck, 1996. According to the re-description and interpretation, the subtribe consists of the following genera: Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816 (its synonyms: Chera Hübner, [1821]; Polia Boisduval, 1829; Aplecta Guenée, 1838; Anartodes Culot, 1915; Bompolia Beck, 1999; Ripolia Beck, 1999; Antipolia Beck, 1999), Pachetra Guenée, 1841, Kollariana Hacker, 1996, Haderonia Staudinger, 1896 (= Lasiridia Draudt, 1950), Ctenoceratoda Varga, 1992 and Tricheurois Hampson, 1905.

In the next step, Fibiger and Lafontaine (2004, 2005) reviewed the higher classification of the Noctuoidea, and proposed a new tribal (and partly subtribal) system for the Holarctic fauna. In these seminal papers the authors accepted the act of Hampson (1902) who distinguished the Polia generic complex under the name “Polianae” with the type genus Polia. Thus, the subtribe Poliina Beck, 1996 was synonymised by them with Poliina Hampson, 1902. However, the taxonomic position of the closely related, formerly monotypic genus Pachetra Guenée, 1841 and the subtribe Pachetrina Beck, 1996 has remained unchanged. The latter subtribe is synonymised here with Poliina in the taxonomic part of this paper (syn. n.).

The genera of Poliina are Holarctic (Polia) or only Eurasiatic with centre of diversity in themonsoonic mountainous areas of South-Eastern Asia (Himalayan – Sino-Tibetan faunal type). Twenty-six species of Polia are present in Eurasia and thirteen species in North America; from themonly one is a Holarctic, circumpolar species (P. richardsoni (Curtis, 1835)). Further genera of the subtribe are exclusively Palaearctic.The most diverse genus is Ctenoceratoda with more than thirty, mostly Central Asiatic species.The members of this subtribe have a characteristic “ground plan” of genital structures (including some lock-and-key mechanisms, see Varga 1992; Varga and Ronkay 2013) with several shared apomorphies as the identical structure of ampulla-harpe complex, the regularly (Polia, Haderonia) asymmetrical saccular processes covered by specialised brushes, the long, tubular endophallus (vesica) without subbasal diverticulum and cornutus but with long medio-subterminal field of fasciculate cornuti (males), the globular corpus bursae and the tubular appendix bursae (females). Abdominal brush-organs of males are mostly present and the last abdominal segment of females often shows specific strongly sclerotised, often shield-shaped structures.

In this review, based on the presence of the T-shaped vesica and the subbasal diverticulum with cornutus,typifying numerous Mamestrina genera (Varga and Ronkay 1991), but also on several characters of the genital capsula (see below), which are categorically absent in Poliina, certain genera and species formerly associated with Poliina have been excluded from this subtribe. The genus Kollariana includes three large, externally confusingly Polia-like species, the genitalia of which demonstrate, however, their close relationship with the Sideridis clade of the subtribe Mamestrina Hampson, 1902. They do not havee.g. saccular processes and ampullae on the valvae, but an ear-shaped costal process near to the cucullus.They also have claw- or spine-like sclerotisation of carina; the vesica is T-shaped, with long subbasal diverticulum and acute cornutus. Kollariana species do not have in the female genitalia elongate tubular appendix bursae, as most genera of Poliina, but they have two complete and one shorter row of small, elliptical stigmata on the corpus bursae.This genus is transferred, therefore, into Mamestrina. It is worth to mention that there are some additional large-sized, Polia-like species occurring in the mountains of the SE frontier of the Tibetan plateau (e.g. the taxa of the genus Irene, the two members of the newly described genus Multisigna (“Polia”) costirufa Draudt, 1950 and “P.hofer (Saldaitis, Benedek & Behounek, 2016), and the still less investigated “Hyssiahadulina Draudt, 1950, etc.) which all belong to Mamestrina based on the shared characters mentioned above (see: taxonomic part in details).

Materials and methods

Abbreviations

BMHN The Natural History Museum London (formerly British Museum, Natural History)

EIHU Entomological Institute, Hokkaido University, Sapporo

HNHM Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest

MNHG Museum of Natural History, Geneva

MNHNP Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris

MNB Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin

NHMW Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna

NRS Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet, Stockholm

SMND Senckenberg Museum für Naturkunde, Dresden

SMNK Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Karlsruhe

USNMW Natural History Museum, Washington, United States

ZFMK Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn (AKM)

ZISP Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg

ZMUH Finnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki

ZSM Zoologische Staatssammlung, München

Taxonomic review of Eurasiatic Poliina genera and species

Poliina Hampson, 1902

Polianae Hampson, 1902, Annals of the South African Museum 2: 255. Type genus: Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816.

Remarks

The taxa are enumerated here in alphabetic sequence in the sake of simplicity. The taxonomic relationships and phylogenetic implications will be discussed in this and the forthcoming papers.

Ctenoceratoda Varga, 1992

Ctenoceratoda Varga, 1992, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 38(1-2): 95.

Type-species

Haderonia sukharevae Varga, 1974, by original designation.

Ctenoceratoda aksakal Varga & Gyulai, 19 99

Ctenoceratoda aksakal Varga & Gyulai, 1999, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45 (2): 179, figs 11, 41, 57, 85. Type-locality: Tadjikistan, E Pamir Mts, Sarykolskiy Mts, Dunkeldyk lake, 4100 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda anthracina Varga & Gyulai, 1999

Ctenoceratoda anthracina Varga & Gyulai, 1999, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45 (2): 180, fig. 63, 86; gen. figs 12, 13, 31, 46, 63. Type-locality: Kirghisia, Naryn region, Maly Naryn, Orukhtau, 2700 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda argyrea Varga, 1992

Ctenoceratoda argyrea Varga, 1992, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 38 (1-2): 98, pl. 2, figs 9-10, gen. figs 5-10, 16-17. Type-locality: Mongolia, Govi Altai aimak, Govi Altai Mts, 6 km S of Tögrög. Holotype: male, in coll. Z. Varga (Debrecen).

Ctenoceratoda brassicina (Draudt, 1934)

Figs 1, 2, 49

Scotogramma brassicina Draudt, 1934, in A. Seitz, Die Groß-Schmetterlinge der Erde 3: 98, pl. 14, row c. Type-locality: [Russia or Kazakhstan] “Altai occ.”. Holotype: female, in coll. MNB.

Ctenoceratoda contempta (Püngeler, 1914)

Figs 3, 4, 50

Hadula (Mamestra) contempta Püngeler, 1914, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden28: 39, pl. 2, fig. 14. Type-locality: [China, Xinjiang] “Ost-Turkestan, Aksu”, “910 R[ue]ckb[eil]”. The specimen was dissected by Boursin (slide No. MB 810). Lectotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Ctenoceratoda gandhara (Hacker & Varga, 1990)

Haderonia gandhara Hacker & Varga, 1990, Esperiana 1: 340, pl. E, fig. 16. Type-locality: Pakistan, Karakoram Mts, Kunjerab pass, 3600 m. Holotype: male, in coll. L. Weigert (Griesbach im Rottal).

Ctenoceratoda graeseri (Püngeler, 1898)

Figs 5, 6, 51

Haderonia tancrei var. graeseri Püngeler, 1898, Societas Entomologica 13: 58. Type-locality: [Kazakhstan or China] Ili region (”Ili 1897 M Juli”). Lectotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Remarks

This taxon was repeatedly described by the same author one year later and first illustrated the species (Iris 12: 102; Plate 9, fig. 3).

Ctenoceratoda gyulaii Volynkin, Varga & Matov, 2012

Ctenoceratoda gyulaii Volynkin, Varga & Matov, 2012, Proceedings of the Tigirek State Natural Reserve5: 205, pl. 3, figs 5-6; pl. 15, figs 18-23; pl. 28, figs 3-4; pl. 33, fig. 3. Type-locality: Russia, Altai Republic, Kosh-Agach district, 10 km WSW of Tashanta village, Bolshoy Shibety valley, 2200 m, 49°40’N, 89°04’E. Holotype: male, in coll. ZISP.

Ctenoceratoda juliannae Varga, 1992

Ctenoceratoda juliannae Varga, 1992, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 38 (1-2): 99, pl. 3, fig. 19, gen. figs 33-36. Type-locality: Mongolia, Khovd aimak, Dzhungar Govi, Bulgan sum (in the village). Holotype: male, in coll. Z. Varga (Debrecen).

Ctenoceratoda khorgossi (Alphéraky, 1882)

Mamestra khorgossi Alphéraky, 1882, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae 17: 65, pl. 2, fig. 49. Type-locality: [China, Xinjiang] Kuldja district; Khorgoss. Syntypes: 2 males and 2 females, in coll. ZISP.

Synonymy

Hadula corgossi Hampson, 1905,Catalogue of the Lepidoptera Phalaenae in the British Museum5: 244. An unjustified emendation of Mamestra khorgossi Alphéraky, 1882.

Ctenoceratoda leucostigma Gyulai & Varga, 2010

Figs 17, 18

Ctenoceratoda leucostigma Gyulai & Varga, 2010, Folia Entomologica Hungarica 70: 182, figs 1-3, gen. figs 9-13. Type-locality: China, Qinghai [Kuku-Noor region], 20 km N of Da Qaidam city, 4,000 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda longicornis (Graeser, 1892)

Figs 7–10, 52, 53

Mamestra longicornis Graeser, 1892, Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 37: 306. Type-locality: [Kirghisia] Kisyl-Yart. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. MNB.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male: “Mamestra longicornis Graeser”, “Asia centr.[alis] Kisyl-Yart Anf.[ang] Juli”. The lectotype specimen was dissected by Boursin (Slide No. MB 307); in coll. MNB.

Ctenoceratoda lukhtanovi Varga & Gyulai, 1999

Ctenoceratoda lukhtanovi Varga & Gyulai, 1999, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45 (2): 172, figs 1-2, 23, 41, 50-52, 82. Type-locality: Tadjikistan, Pamir Mts, Muzkol Mts, Ak-Baital Pass, 4200 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda lupa (Christoph, 1893)

Figs 11, 12, 54

Mamestra lupa Christoph, 1893, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 6: 91. Type-locality: [Iran] Hyrcania, Shahkuh (“Schahkuh”, “Coll. Christoph [580]”, “Ex Coll. H.J. Elwes,1920” “Joicey Bequest, Brit. Mus. 1934-120.”). Lectotype: male, in coll. BMNH.

Remarks

The type material has long been considered to be harboured in the collection of the ZISP. The male specimen from “Schahrud”, dissected by Rjabov (ZISP 7565) cannot be considered as an original type however, since the locality does not agree with the original description. The original specimens (two males, “Schahkuh, Hyrcaniae”) were most probably sold by Christoph and one of them was found in the collection of the NHM London, with the labels illustrated in the Fig. 12. This specimen has been designated as lectotype of Mamestra lupa (slide No. RL11753m) (Varga et al. 2017).

Ctenoceratoda naryna Varga & Gyulai, 1999

Ctenoceratoda naryna Varga & Gyulai, 1999, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45 (2): 189, figs 15-16, gen. figs 33, 47, 66-67, 87. Type-locality: Kirghisia, Naryn region, Maly Naryn, Uzungyr, 2700 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda nefasta (Püngeler, 1907)

Figs 13, 14, 55

Hadula nefasta Püngeler, 1907, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 19: 221, pl. 8, fig. 2. Type-locality: [China, Xinjiang] Lob-Noor. Lectotype: male, here designated; coll. MNB.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, “nefasta Püngeler”, “Lob-Noor”, “Juni, R[ue]ckb[eil]”. The specimen was dissected by Boursin (slide No. MB 309); coll. MNB.

Ctenoceratoda optima (Alphéraky, 1897)

Figs 15, 16, 56

Haderonia optima Alphéraky, 1897, in Romanoff: Mémoires sur les Lépidoptéres 9: 236, pl. 12, fig. 7. Type-locality: [China] Oulan-boulak, Nan-chan. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. ZISP.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, “Montes Humboldt Nan-Chiai”, “VI 1894, 10.000’”, “optima Alph.” “Kol.[lekciya] Vel.[ikogo] Kn.[yaza] Nikolaia Michailovicha” (with Cyrillic letters). The specimen was dissected by Matov (slide No. Matov 0148 ZISP; in coll. ZISP).

Ctenoceratoda oxyptera Varga, 1992

Ctenoceratoda oxyptera Varga, 1992, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 38 (1-2): 99, pl. 3, figs 17-18, gen. figs 37-43. Type-locality: Mongolia, Govi Altai aimak, Govi Altai Mts, 6 km S of Tögrög. Holotype: male, in coll. Z. Varga (Debrecen).

Ctenoceratoda peregovitsi Varga & Gyulai, 1999

Ctenoceratoda peregovitsi Varga & Gyulai, 1999, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45 (2): 174, figs 4-5, gen. figs 25-26, 55, 83. Type-locality: Mongolia, Ömnögovi aimak, Tost Mts, 42 km WSW Gurt, 2450 m, 43°11’11”N, 100°36’60”E. Holotype: male, in coll. HNHM.

Ctenoceratoda psychrogena Varga & Gyulai, 1999

Ctenoceratoda psychrogena Varga & Gyulai, 1999, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45(2): 175, figs 6-8, gen. figs 27-29, 42-44, 58-62, 84. Type-locality: Tadjikistan, Pamir Mts, Vakhanskiy Mts, 4200 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda septemlacustris Gaal-Haszler, Lödl, Ronkay, Ronkay & Varga, 2012

Ctenoceratoda septemlacustris Gaal-Haszler, Lödl, Ronkay, Ronkay & Varga, 2012, Fibigeriana 1: 125, pl. 112, figs 19-20, gen. figs 12-13. Type-locality: Afghanistan, Koh-i-Baba Mts, Band-i-Amir, 3000 m. Holotype: male, in coll. NHMW.

Ctenoceratoda stenocera Varga & Gyulai, 2002

Ctenoceratoda stenocera Varga & Gyulai, 2002, Esperiana 9: 230, pl. 20, fig. 16. Type-locality: China, Kunlun Mts, 60 km NW of Xaidullah village, 4000–4500 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda sukharevae sukharevae (Varga, 1974)

Haderonia sukharevae Varga, 1974, Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 66: 301, pl. 7, fig. 7. Type-locality: Mongolia, Bayankhongor aimak, Zhinst Mts, 50 km E of Shinezhinst somon, 2000 m. Holotype: male, in coll. HNHM.

Ctenoceratoda sukharevae excellens (Varga, 1974)

Haderonia sukharevae excellens Varga, 1974, Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 66: 302, pl. 1, figs 7-8.Type-locality: Mongolia, Khövsgöl aimak, Delger mörön river, 8 km N of Burenchaan somon, 1450 m. Holotype: male, in coll. HNHM.

Ctenoceratoda tancrei (Graeser, 1892)

Figs 19, 20, 57

Mamestra tancrei Graeser, 1892, Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 37: 305. Type-locality: [Kirghisia] Alexander Mts. Lectotype: male, here designated; coll. MNB.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, “tancrei Graeser Type”, “Alexander Gb. R[ue]ckb[eil] E. Juli”.

Remarks

The lectotype was not dissected by Boursin, since the end of the abdomen seems to be slightly damaged. The completely similar paralectotype specimen from the same locality was dissected by Varga (gen. slide VZ 9526).

Ctenoceratoda thermolimna (Boursin, 1964)

Haderonia thermolimna Boursin, 1964, Zeitschrift der Wiener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 49: 174, pl. 22, figs 1, 4. Type-locality: Kirghisia, Issyk-Kul. Holotype: male, in coll. ZSM.

Ctenoceratoda transalaica Varga and Gyulai, 1999

Ctenoceratoda transalaica Varga & Gyulai, 1999, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 45(2): 189, figs 17, gen. figs 34, 48, 68-69, 88. Type-locality: Kirghisia, Transalai, Aram Kungei, 2800 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda turpis (Staudinger, 1999)

Figs 21, 22, 58

Phoebophilus turpis Staudinger, 1899, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 12: 341, pl. 7, fig. 8. Type-locality: [China, Xinjiang] Korla. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. MNB.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, „Korla”, „Origin” (pink label); the specimen was dissected by Boursin (slide No. MB 298).

Remarks

The types are incorrectly cited by Poole as „2 females”, in the original description were mentioned 1 worn male and 2 fresh females.

Ctenoceratoda weigerti (Hacker & Varga, 1990)

Haderonia weigerti Hacker & Varga, 1990, Esperiana 1: 340, pl. E, fig. 16. Type-locality: Pakistan, Karakoram Mts, Kunjerab pass, 3600 m. Holotype: male, in coll. L. Weigert (Griesbach im Rottal).

Ctenoceratoda zetina zetina (Staudinger, 1899)

Hadena zeta var. zetina Staudinger, 1899, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 12: 342. Type-locality: [China, Tien Shan region] „Thian or”. Holotype: female, in coll. MNB.

Synonymy

Mamestra (Hadula) impia Püngeler, 1905, Societas Entomologica 19: 153. Type-locality: [China, Xinjiang] Aksu. Syntypes: 1 male and 1 female, in coll. MNB;

Mamestra desquamata Filipjev, 1931, Abhandlungen der Pamir-Expedition 1928, 8: 152, text fig. 2, pl. 3, fig. 3. Type-locality: [Tadjikistan] Pamir, Khorog; [China, Xinjiang] Aksu; Kashgar; Dashi-Kulj. Syntypes: in coll. ZISP.

Ctenoceratoda zetina rhodoptera Varga, 1992

Ctenoceratoda zetina rhodoptera Varga, 1992, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 38(1-2): 100, pl. 1, fig. 7. Type-locality: Afghanistan central, Band-i-Amir, 3600 m. Holotype: male, in coll. NHMW.

The descriptions of the following four new species and a new subspecies have been recently published in a separate paper on the taxonomy of the genus Ctenoceratoda (Varga et al. 2017).

Ctenoceratoda persephone Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017

Ctenoceratoda persephone Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 64 (1) .Type-locality: Mongolia, Khovd aimak, 60 km E of Altay somon centre, 1600 m, 45°48’N, 92°50’E. Holotype: male, in coll. HNHM.

Ctenoceratoda scotosparsa Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017

Ctenoceratoda scotosparsa Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 64 (1).Type-locality: Mongolia, Govi Altai aimak, Mongolian Altay Mts, Sutay uul, 16 km SE of Dzuyl, 46°11’N, 94°01’E; 2070 m. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Ctenoceratoda cyanochrea Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017

Ctenoceratoda cyanochrea Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 64 (1).Type-locality: Mongolia, Khovd aimak, Mongolian Altay Mts, 1430 m, Mönkh Khayrkhan uul, 41 km N of Bulgan, 46°28’N, 91°24’E. Holotype: male, in coll. G. Ronkay (Budapest).

Ctenoceratoda mallopyga Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017

Ctenoceratoda mallopyga Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae64 (1).Type-locality: Pakistan, Karakoram Mts, Naltar valley, 2800 m, N36°09’, E74°12’. Holotype: male, in coll. Z. Varga (Debrecen).

Ctenoceratoda mallopyga dyschroa Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017

Ctenoceratoda mallopyga dyschroa Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 64 (1).Type-locality: India, Himachal Pradesh, Spiti, Spiti valley, 6 km SE Kaza, 4100 m. Holotype: male, in coll. G. Ronkay.

Haderonia Staudinger, 1896

Haderonia Staudinger, 1896, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 8: 320. Type-species: Haderonia subarschanica Staudinger, 1896, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 8: 320, pl. 6, fig. 12, by monotypy; a junior synonym of Mamestra (Dianthoecia) miserabilis Alphéraky, 1892.

Synonymy

Lasiridia Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 39, plate II., fig. 9. Type-species: Lasiridia iomelas Draudt, 1950, by monotypy.

Haderonia alpina (Draudt, 1950)

Lasiestra alpina Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 23, pl. 1, fig. 20. Type-locality: China, [Sichuan] “Batang, alpine Zone”. Syntypes: both sexes, in coll. ZFMK Bonn.

Taxonomic notes

The figure of the genital slide (Plate XIII, Fig. 13) was changed in the original publication (showing the genitalia of a Xestia sp.!). Boursin (1964b) dissected and figured the specimen labelled by Draudt as holotype (Plate XIII, Fig. 53) and stated correctly its generic placement in Haderonia.

Haderonia aplectoides (Draudt, 1950)

Figs 23, 24, 59

Lasionycta aplectoides Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 25, pl. 1, fig. 24. Type-locality: China, Prov. Yunnan, Li-kiang. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. ZFMK.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, [China] ”Prov. Nord-Yuennan, Li-kiang”. The lectotype specimen was dissected by Boursin (slide No. Hö 613); it is deposited in the ZFMK.

Remarks

A specimen of this species from the same locality was labelled by Draudt as Lasionycta bombycioides. This taxon has never been published, however. The specimen was dissected by Boursin (Hö 612).

Haderonia arschanica (Alphéraky, 1882)

Hadena arschanica Alphéraky, 1882, Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae17: 78, pl. 2, f. 45. Type-locality: [Xinjiang] Kuldja district, Archane. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. ZISP.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, „Tien Chan, 13.VI.1879.”, „arschanica Alph. Original”, „Kol.[lekcija] vel.[ikogo] kn.[jaza] Nikolaya Michailovicha (in Cyrillic letters); coll. ZISP.

Haderonia chinensis (Draudt, 1950)

Trichestra chinensis Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 19, pl. 1, f. 3-4. Type-locality: [Yunnan], Li-kiang; Atuntse; Mien-shan. Syntypes: numerous specimens of both sexes, in coll. ZFMK.

Haderonia iomelas (Draudt, 1950)

Lasiridia iomelas Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 39, pl. 2, f. 19. Type-locality: [Sichuan] Batang. Syntypes: males, in coll. ZFMK.

Haderonia lasiestrina (Draudt, 1950)

Figs 25, 26, 60

Polia lasiestrina Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 27, pl. 2, f. 1. Type-locality: [Sichuan] Batang. Holotype: male, in coll. ZFMK. Lectotype: male, here designated.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, [China], ”Li-kiang, Batang, alpine Zone, 5000 m”. The lectotype specimen was dissected by Boursin (slide No. Hö 610), coll. ZFMK.

Haderonia miserabilis (Alphéraky, 1892)

Mamestra (Dianthoecia) miserabilis Alphéraky, 1892, in Romanoff: Mémoires sur les Lépidoptéres 6: 33. Type-locality: [China] „entre Tchatchakou et Tchangla, dans la province Sétchouén”. Holotype: female, in coll. ZISP (slide No. ZIN 4367).

Synonymy

Hadena subarschanica Staudinger, 1895, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 8: 320, pl. 6, f. 12. Type-locality: [China] between Lob Noor and Kuku Noor. Holotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Haderonia subarschanica nepalensis Boursin, 1964, Veröffentlichungen der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München 8: 26, pl. 2, f. 41-42. Type-locality: Nepal, Mustangbhot, Gargompa. Holotype: male, in ZSM.

Haderonia persimilis (Draudt, 1950)

Trichestra persimilis Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 20, pl. 1, f. 7-8. Type-locality: [Sichuan] Batang. Syntypes: both sexes, in coll. ZFMK.

Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816

Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816, Die Schmetterlinge von Europe 4: 73. Type-species: Phalaena nebulosa Hufnagel, 1766, by subsequent designation by Curtis, 1829.

Synonymy

Chera Hübner, 1821, Verzeichniss bekannter Schmetterlinge: 211. Type-species: Polia serratilinea Ochsenheimer, 1816, by subsequent designation by Hampson, 1902;

Polia Boisduval, 1828, Europaeorum Lepidopterorum Index Methodicus: 73. Type-species: Phalaena nebulosa Hufnagel, 1766, by subsequent designation by Curtis, 1829;

Aplecta Guenée, 1838, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 7: 217. Type-species: Phalaena nebulosa Hufnagel, 1766, by subsequent designation by Guenée, 1852;

Anartodes Culot, 1915, Noctuelles et Géometrés d’Europe. Premiére Partie Noctuelles 2: 125. Type-species: Mamestra rangnowi Püngeler, 1909, by monotypy;

Bompolia Beck, 1996, Neue entomologische Nachrichten 36: 73. Type-species: Phalaena bombycina Hufnagel, 1766, by original designation;

Ripolia Beck, 1996, Neue entomologische Nachrichten 36: 73. Type-species: Hadena richardsoni Curtis, 1834, by original designation;

Antipolia Beck, 1996, Neue entomologische Nachrichten 36: 73. Type-species: Mamestra conspicua Bang-Haas, 1912, by original designation.

Atropolia subgen. n.

Type-species

Mamestra mortua Staudinger, 1888, here designated.

Diagnosis

The two species of this subgenus are characterised by the most often unicolorous black or deep blackish-brown forewing ground colour and some unique structures of the male genitalia. The most conspicuous character of the male genitalia is the long, slightly falcate extension of the basal plate of the harpe-ampulla complex, superficially resembling the digitus of some not closely related groups. The saccular processes are relatively short and simple, slightly asymmetric with a brush of specialised setae on the right (on figures left) side. The vesica is helicoidal with a full coil; the distal section of the vesica is armed by a long stripe of fasciculate cornuti. In the female genitalia, the ductus bursae is strongly sclerotised and dorso-ventrally compressed, somewhat similar as in Ctenoceratoda species, however the appendix bursae is very different, relatively short, tubular.

Etymology

The name is the amalgamation of the names Atropos and Polia.

Polia (Atropolia) mortuamortua (Staudinger, 1888)

Mamestra mortua Staudinger, 1888, Entomologische Zeitung. Entomologischen Vereine zu Stettin 49: 249. Type-locality: [Russia] Askold (Island). Holotype: female, in coll. MNB.

Synonymy

Mamestra afra Graeser, 1889, Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 32 (2): 326. Type-locality: [Russia] Amur region, Vladivostok. Holotype: female, in coll. MNB;

Polia persicariae minorita Bryk, 1949, Arkiv för Zoologi 41A (1): 73. Type-locality: North Korea, near Kyeongseong, Hamgyeong bugdo (Shuotsu). Holotype: male, in coll. NRS.

Polia (Atropolia) mortuakala (Swinhoe, 1900)

Hadena kala Swinhoe, 1900, Catalogue of Eastern and Australian LepidopteraHeterocera in the Oxford University Museum 2: 17. An objective replacement name of Mamestra nigerrima Warren, 1888 (primary homonymy with Mamestra nigerrima Guenée, 1854).

Synonymy

Mamestra nigerrima Warren, 1888, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1888: 302. Type-locality: India, Himachal Pradesh, Thundiani. Syntypes: 2 males and 4 females. Preoccupied, a junior primary homonym of Mamestra nigerrima Guenée, 1852.

Polia (Atropolia) mortua szetschwana Draeseke, 1928, stat. rev., comb. n.

Figs 27, 28, 61

Polia szetschwana Draeseke, 1928, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 42: 301.Type-locality: [China] Sichuan, Sunpanting. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. SMND.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, “Polia szetschwana” (sic!) “Szetschwan, Sunpanting” “Exp. Stötzner 1927 9” “Polia mortua Stgr. det. Boursin”. Two male and three female paralectotypes from the same locality (male gen. slide VZ Dresden 09).

Synonymy

Polia adustaeoides Draeseke, 1928,Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 42: 302. Type-locality: [China],”Setchwan, Ta-tsien-lou Exp. Stötzner“.“1927 9“, syn. n.

Taxonomic notes

The revision of the type series confirms the recognition of the subspecific rank of this south-western population, as well as the taxonomic identity of szetschwana and adustaeoides. This taxon inhabits the high mountains on the SE edge of the Tibet (Xizang) plateau.

Polia (Atropolia) mortuacaeca Hreblay & Ronkay, 1997

Polia mortua caeca Hreblay & Ronkay, 1997, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 43 (1): 28, figs 12-13, 132-133. Type-locality: Taiwan, Nantou County, Tayuling, 3000 m, 24°08’N, 121°16’E. Holotype: male, in coll. M. Hreblay (deposited in HNHM).

Polia (Atropolia) posterodiluta sp. n.

Figs 29, 30, 62

Holotype

Male, China, “Ost-Tibet, Gyimda, 3700 m, „temp. Wald”, 2.VII.2004, leg. Bretschnieder; slide No. RL8670m (coll. A. Becher).

Diagnosis

The new species is a sympatric sister taxon of the widespread and polytypical Polia (Atropolia) mortua, occurring together with the ssp. szetschwana at the SE frontier of the Tibetan plateau. The new species differs externally from all subspecies of P. (A.) mortua by its smaller size (wingspan 38 mm), intense pale ochreous-to ochreous-brownish suffusion in the inner parts of the forewing running from the basal area to the inner half of the marginal field (with some reddish hue only at the lower part of the basal area and along the subterminal line), the narrower reniform stigma with fine whitish line at middle (while the regular white line along the outer edge of the stigma and the characteristic two white dots at lower edge are missing), and the diluted (ochreous-whitish) inner area of the hindwing with well-developed discal spot on the underside. The marginal area of the hindwing has rather pale greyish-brown suffusion, with small darker grey patches at tornal area, covering also the fringes. The sympatrically occurring populations of P. (A.) mortua are usually dimorphic, having either dark brown to blackish-brown forewings with only weak reddish-brownish hue or with intensely red-brownish suffusion (the form described as adustaeoides), but this reddish suffusion is less extensive than in P. (A.) posterodiluta, the reniform stigma is larger, with the typical whitish markings at outer edge, and the male hindwing is more evenly greyish-brown suffused, with much smaller discal spot. Female unknown.

The male genitalia are essentially similar to those of P. (A.) mortua but the sclerotised medial extension of valvae is less falcate, evenly broad, except the finely tapering and terminally pointed distal quarter. This process is medially narrower and distally dilated, apically rounded in all four subspecies of P. (A.) mortua. In addition, the clavi are broader and more evenly rounded, and the juxta is smaller and thinner than in different subspecies of P. (A.) mortua.

Distribution

SE Tibetan. The species is known from the type-locality only; the holotype specimen was collected in a high altitude forest region in the midsummer period.

Metallopolia Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017

Metallopolia Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 21.Type-species: Mamestra culta Moore, 1881, Proceedings of the Zoological Society ofLondon1881: 347.

Taxonomic notes

The revision of the subgenus Metallopolia is published in a separate paper (Vargaet al. 2017b). It contains five easily distinguishable species representing three main lineages, the culta-, the subviolacea- and the kalikotei-lineages. The shortened diagnosis of the subgenus is presented below; the detailed analysis of the clade is given in the above-mentioned publication.

Diagnosis

Metallopolia species are large, robust moths, resembling the larger south Siberian Polia species but have shorter abdomen bearing 3-4 prominent blackish tufts on the first abdominal segments dorsally. The most conspicuous external character of the members of this subgenus is the presence of optically structured “metallic” scales with „neon-greenish” colouration (see: Etymology) within or near to the maculation and the anal edge of the postmedial transversal line. The forewing ground colour is rather dark brown to blackish-brown with some purplish-violaceous hue and diffuse, smaller or larger reddish-brownish patches; the hindwings are also dark brown or grey-brown. The members of the subgenus are externally often confusingly similar, the proper identification often requires the study of genitalia.

In the male genitalia, the saccular processes are slightly asymmetrical, extended, acute or obtuse, with strong setae terminally, in most species with characteristic brush of specialised setae on the right (in figures left) side. Vesica long, tubular, partly or entirely coiling, medial and distal sections armed by numerous small, spiniform cornuti arranged into a long and variably dense stripe. In the female genitalia, the ductus bursae is sclerotised, compressed dorso-ventrally; the appendix bursae is tubular, sausage-shaped, slightly retroflexed, bursa globular with longitudinal, extremely faint signa.

Etymology

The name refers to the scales with light greenish optical colouration and metallic shine on the fore wings as unique character within the genus Polia.

Polia (Metallopolia) culta (Moore, 1881)

Mamestra culta Moore, 1881, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1881: 347. Type-locality: [India, Himachal Pradesh] Dalhousie N.W. Himalaya. Holotype: female, in coll. NHML. Gen. slide 4442.

Polia (Metallopolia) dysgnorima Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, in press

Polia (Metallopolia) dysgnorima Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 21.Type-locality: China, Sichuan, Daxue Shan, Gongga Shan, NW Moxi, 3200 m, 101°58’E,29°41’N. Holotype: male, in coll. Z. Varga.

Polia (Metallopolia) metagnorima Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, in press

Polia (Metallopolia) metagnorima Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 21.Type-locality: China, Sichuan, Daxue Shan, Gongga Shan, NW Moxi, 2850 m, 101°58’E,29°41’N. Holotype: male, in coll. Z. Varga.

Polia (Metallopolia) ignorata (Hreblay, 1996)

Haderonia ignorata Hreblay, 1996, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 42 (1): 70, figs 5-7, gen. fig. 12. Type-locality: China, Sichuan, Pu-tsu-fong. Holotype: male, in coll. BMNH.

Polia (Metallopolia) kalikotei (Varga, 1992)

Haderonia kalikotei Varga, 1992, Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 38: 97, pl. 1, fig. 1. Type-locality: “Nepal, Prov. 3 East, Junbesi, 2750 m”. Holotype: male, in coll. ZSM.

Polia (Metallopolia) subviolaceasubviolacea (Leech, 1900)

Hadena culta var. subviolacea Leech, 1900, Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 1900: 55. Type-locality: [China, Sichuan] Omei Shan (Emei Shan). Holotype: male, in coll. BMNH.

Remarks

A Metallopolia specimen from China, North Yunnan, Likiang was selected by Draudt as a distinct taxon and labelled as Lasiadena purpureonitens. This taxon has never been published; the selected holotype specimen is conspecific with P. (M.) subviolacea.

Polia (Metallopolia) subviolaceakanchenjunga Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017

Polia (Metallopolia) subviolacea kanchenjunga Varga, Ronkay & Ronkay, 2017, Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 21. Type-locality: Nepal, Kanchenjunga Himal, Deorali Danda, Torontan, 3200 m. Holotype: male, in coll. G. Ronkay.

Leuconephropolia subgen. n.

Type-species

Polia albirena Draudt, 1950, by monotypy.

Diagnosis

This isolated species is strikingly different from all other Polia species by its slenderer body, more elongate triangular and somewhat acute forewings, longer pectinated and relatively long antennae of males, by dark greyish-brown colouration of thorax and fore wings with some violaceous shine.

The male genitalia also differ conspicuously from those of all other known Polia species, the diagnostic features are as follows: the saccular processes are symmetrical, relatively short and densely covered by a “bush” of strong setae terminally, and the vesica is completely helicoid and recurved, bearing a large number of thin, spiniform cornuti and a small terminal diverticulum.

The female genitalia are also very specific: the sclerotisation of the antrum is weak, connected to ductus bursae with a slightly constricted membranous section (“neck”), the ductus bursae is flattened and more sclerotised, the corpus bursae is saccate, lacking signa, while the appendix bursae is broad and retroflexed.

Etymology

The name refers to the light reniform stigma of the type-species.

Polia (Leuconephropolia) albirena Draudt, 1950

Figs 31, 32, 63

Polia albirena Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 84, pl. 6, fig. 5. Type-locality: China, Prov. Shaanxi, Tsinling Mts, Tapaishan. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. ZFMK.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, [China], “Shaanxi, Tapaishan in Tsinling Shan”, dissected by Z. Varga (Slide No. ZV 8946); coll. ZFMK.

Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816

Polia Ochsenheimer, 1816, Die Schmetterlinge von Europe 4: 73. Type-species: Phalaena nebulosa Hufnagel, 1766, by subsequent designation by Curtis, 1829.

Polia (Polia) atraxatrax Draudt, 1950

Figs 33, 34, 64

Polia atrax Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 31, pl. 2, fig. 17. Type-locality: China, Prov. Yunnan, Atuntse. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. ZFMK.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, [China],”Prov. Nord-Yuennan, A-tun-tse”, dissected by Varga (Slide ZV 8945); coll. ZFMK.

Polia (Polia) atraxvargai Gyulai & Saldaitis, 2017

Polia atrax vargai Gyulai & Saldaitis, 2017, Zootaxa 4311 (2): 296, figs 9, 10, 17.Type-locality: China, Prov. Gansu, Atuntse. Holotype: male, in coll. P. Gyulai (Miskolc).

Polia (Polia) bombycina (Hufnagel, 1766)

Phalaena bombycina Hufnagel, 1766, Berlinisches Magazin 3(4): 410. Type-locality: [Germany] vic. of Berlin. Types destroyed.

Synonymy

Noctua advena [Denis and Schiffermüller], 1775, Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wiener Gegend 1775: 77. Type-locality: [Austria]: Vienna region. Types destroyed;

Noctua nitens Haworth, 1809, Lepidoptera Britannica; sistens Digestionem novam Insectorum Lepidopterorum quae in Magna Britannia Reperiuntur, Larvarum Pabulo, Temporeque Pascendi; Expansione Alarum; Mensibusque Volandi; Synonymis atque Locis Observationibusque Variis 2: 267. Type-locality: [England] Norfolk.

Polia (Polia) bombycinagrisea (Butler, 1878)

Alysia grisea Butler, 1878, The Annals and Magazine of Natural History 5(1): 82. Type-locality: Japan, Yokohama. Holotype: female, in coll. BMNH.

Synonymy

Mamestra advena var. adjuncta Staudinger, 1888, Entomologische Zeitung, Entomologischen Vereine Stettin 49: 249. Type-locality: [Russia] Vladivostok; Sidemi (Bezverkhovo); Askold Island; Ussuri; Suifun (Razdolnaya river). Syntypes: in coll. MNB. Preoccupied, a junior primary homonym of Mamestra adjuncta Boisduval, 1852;

Mamestra tetrica Graeser, 1889, Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 32 (2): 325. Type-locality: [Russia] Amur region, Chabarofka (Khabarovsk). Holotype: female, in coll. MNB;

Mamestra advena var. mongolica Staudinger, 1896, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 9: 241. Type-locality: [Mongolia] Urga (Ulanbaatar). Syntypes: 3 specimens, in coll. MNB.

Parastichtis sordida var. sachalinensis Matsumura, 1931, 6000 Illustrated Insects of Japan-Empire. Sapporo 1931: 829. Type-locality: [Russia] Sakhalin. Type(s): in coll. EIHU;

Aplecta mongolica advenina Bryk, 1949, Arkiv för Zoologi 41A (1): 75. An unnecessary replacement name for Mamestra advena var. adjuncta Staudinger, 1888;

Aplecta mongolica chidisana Bryk, 1949, Arkiv för Zoologi 41(1): 829. Type-locality: North Korea, Chidisan. Holotype: female, in coll. NRS;

Aplecta mongolica koreagena Bryk, 1949, Arkiv för Zoologi 41A(1): 75. Type-locality: North Korea, Hamgyeongbugdo (Shuotsu). Holotype: female, in coll. NRS.

Polia (Polia) bombycina psammochrea Varga, 1974

Polia bombycina psammochrea Varga, 1974, Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 66: 302, fig. 8.Type-locality: Mongolia, Govi Altai aimak, Khasaght Khajhran Mts, 20 km S of somon Zhargalan, 2400 m. Holotype: male, in coll. HNHM.

Polia (Polia) bombycina puengeleri Lehmann, 1998

Polia bombycina puengeleri Lehmann, 1998, Esperiana 6: 475. Type-locality: [Kirghisia] Asia Centralis, Alexander Mts. Holotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Polia (Polia) goliath (Oberthür, 1880)

Dichonia goliath Oberthür, 1880, Études d’Entomologie 5: 68, pl. 6, fig. 7.Type-locality: [Russia] Askold [Island]. Holotype: male, in coll. BMNH.

Polia (Polia) griseifusa Draudt, 1950

Figs 35, 36, 65

Polia griseifusa Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 30, pl. 2, fig. 14. Type-locality: China, Prov. Yunnan, Li-kiang; A-tun-tse; Batang. Lectotype, female, designated here, in coll. ZFMK.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: female, “Li-kiang China, Nord-Yuennan 4.9.1935 H. Höne” (printed label),“Holotype Polia griseifusa Drdt.” (handwritten label on pink paper). Slide No. HM8343. The specimen is figured by Hacker (1990:Plate D, fig. 9.); coll. ZFMK.

Polia (Polia) hepatica (Clerck, 1759)

Phalaena hepatica Clerck, 1759, Icones Insectorum Rariorum cum Nominibus eorum Trivialibus, Locisque e C. Linnaei 1: pl. 8, fig. 3. Type-locality: no locality given.

Synonymy

Phalaena trimaculosa Esper, 1788, Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen 4: pl. 131, fig. 5. Type-locality: no locality given;

Phalaena tincta Brahm, 1791, Handbuch der ökonomischen Insektengeschichte in Form eines Kalenders bearbeitet2: 393. Type-locality: no locality given;

Noctua argentina Haworth, 1809, Lepidoptera Britannica; sistens Digestionem novam Insectorum Lepidopterorum quae in Magna Britannia Reperiuntur, Larvarum Pabulo, Temporeque Pascendi; Expansione Alarum; Mensibusque Volandi; Synonymis atque Locis Observationibusque Variis 2: 186. Type-locality: Great Britain;

Mamestra tincta var. obscurata Staudinger, 1897, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 10: 335. Type-locality: [Russia] Apfelgebirge (Yablonoviy range). Syntypes: 2 females, in coll. MNB.

Polia (Polia) lamalama (Staudinger, 1896)

Figs 37, 38, 66

Mamestra nebulosa var. lama Staudinger, 1896, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden9: 241. Type-locality: [Mongolia, Khangay Mts] Uliassutay. Holotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Synonymy

Polia enodata expallidata Varga, 1974, Annales Historico-Naturales Musei Nationalis Hungarici 66: 306, fig. 10. Type-locality: Mongolia, Bayan Ölgiy aimak, Khovd river. Holotype: male, in coll. HNHM.

Polia (Polia) lamaenodata (Bang-Haas, 1912)

Figs 39, 40, 67

Mamestra enodata Bang-Haas, 1912, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 26: 145, pl. 6, fig. 10. Type-locality: [Kazakhstan] Karagai-Tau. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. MNB.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, „Karagai-Tau”, „Original” (pink label); the specimen was dissected by Boursin (slide No. MB 356); coll. MNB.

Polia (Polia) lamuta (Herz, 1903)

Anarta lamuta Herz, 1903, Annuaire du Musée Zoologique de l’Académie Imperiale des Sciences de St.-Pétersbourg 8: 82. Type-locality: [Russia] Uruata Camp place; W of Verkhoyansk. Syntypes: 1 male, 1 female, in coll. ZISP.

Synonymy

Anarta richardsoni var. asiatica Staudinger, 1901, in Staudinger and Rebel, Catalog der Lepidopteren des Palaearctischen Faunengebietes 1901: 218. Type-locality: [Norway] Dovre. Syntypes: in coll. MNB. Preoccupied, a junior secondary homonym of Polia asiatica Alphéraky, 1887; syn. of Bryoxena centralasiae (Staudinger, 1882);

Mamestra rangnowi Püngeler, 1909, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 21(4): 288. Type-locality: [Sweden] Lulea Lappmark. Syntypes: in coll. MNB;

Anarta lamuta tunkinski O. Bang-Haas, 1927, Horae Macrolepidopterologiae regionis palaearcticae 1: 86, pl. 10, figs 27-28. Type-locality: [Russia] Irkutsk Pref., Tunkinskiy Mts, SW of Irkutsk, 2000 m. Holotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Polia (Polia) malchani (Draudt, 1934)

Aplecta malchani Draudt, 1934, in A. Seitz, Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 3: 108, pl. 14, row i. Type-locality: [Russia] Transbaikalia, Malchan Mt, “Borochojewa”, 800 m. Holotype: female, in coll. MNB.

Polia (Polia) nebulosa nebulosa (Hufnagel, 1766)

Phalaena nebulosa Hufnagel, 1766, Berlinisches Magazin 3(3): 298. Type-locality: Germany, Berlin district.

Synonymy

Phalaena Noctua thapsi Brahm, 1791, Handbuch der ökonomischen Insektengeschichte in Form eines Kalenders bearbeitet 2: 135. Type-locality: no locality given;

Phalaena grandis Donovan, 1801, The Natural History of the British Insects 10: 51, pl. 345, fig. 1. Type-locality: England;

Noctua plebeja Hübner, 1803, Sammlung europäischer Schmetterlinge 4: pl. 16, fig. 78. Type-locality: Europe; nec Phalaena plebeja Linnaeus, 1761; Fauna Suecica 320; TL: Sweden, Uplandia

Polia (Polia) nebulosa askolda (Oberthür, 1880)

Aplecta nebulosa var. askolda Oberthür, 1880, Études d‘ Entomologie 5: 79. Type-locality: [Russia] Askold [Island]. Syntypes: 4 males and 1 female, in coll. BMNH.

Polia (Polia) richardsoni (Curtis, 1835)

Hadena richardsoni Curtis, 1835, Appendix to John Ross Narrative of a Second Voyage 1835: 72, pl, A, fig. 11. Type-locality: [Canada] 15 miles from River Tatchick (Eskimo name), 200 miles S of Port Bowen, very near Comptroller’s Island. Types: in coll. USNMW.

Synonymy

Anarta algida Lefebvre, 1836,Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 5: 396, pl. 10 fig. 5. Type-locality: “Laponie”. Syntypes, in coll. MNHNP;

Anarta septentrionis Walker, 1857, List of the Specimens of Lepidopterous Insects in the Collection of the British Museum 11: 700. Type-locality: [Canada] Repulse Bay. Holotype: in coll. BMNH;

Mamestra feildeni McLachlan, 1878, Journal of the Linnean Society (Zoology) 14: 112. Type-locality: Canada Arctic Territories, Dobbin Bay. Holotype: female;

Anarta fumida Graeser, 1889, Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 32(2): 323. Type-locality: [Russia], Amur region, Amur region, Nicolajefsk (Nikolajevsk). Holotype: male, in coll. ZISP;

Anarta lanuginosa Smith, 1900, in: Dyar, Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences 2: 493. Type-locality: USA, Alaska, Popof Island. Holotype: male, in coll. USNMW;

Anarta richardsoni var. dovrensis Staudinger, 1901, in Staudinger and Rebel, Catalog der Lepidopteren des Palaearctischen Faunengebietes 1901: 218. Type-locality: [Norway] Dovre. Syntypes: in coll. MNB;

Anarta squara Smith, 1908, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 18: 112. Type-locality: Greenland. Lectotype: male, in coll. AMNHN;

Anarta magna Barnes and Benjamin, 1924, Entomological News 35: 117. Type-locality: USA, Colorado, Hall valley, Bullion peak. Holotype, female, in coll. USNMW;

Anarta richardsoni tamsi Benjamin, 1933, Pan-Pacific Entomologist 9: 58. Type-locality: [Canada] Labrador, Hopedale. Holotype: male, in coll. USNMW;

Aplecta richardsoni groenlandica Heydemann, 1944, Entomologische Zeitung, Entomologischen Vereine zu Stettin 105: 22, pl. 7, figs 5-6. Type-locality: East Greenland. Syntypes: in coll. MNB.

Taxonomic notes

This circumpolar Holarctic species shows intense subspeciation in both continents; the taxonomic stati of the described taxa are to be clarified.

Polia (Polia) serratilinea serratilinea (Treitschke, 1825)

Figs 41, 42

Mamestra serratilinea Treitschke, 1825, Die Schmetterlinge von Europa 5(2): 38. Type-locality: Vienna district. Lectotype designated here, male in coll. HNHM.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, with the following labels: “Ochs. 961” (printed label with black margin), “Hung. Nat. Hist. Mus. Coll. Lepidoptera, Collectio Ochsenheimer No. 975”; coll. HNHM.

Synonymy

Mamestra serratilinea Ochsenheimer, 1816, Die Schmetterlinge von Europe IV, p. 74. (nomen nudum);

Mamestra serratilinea var. helvetica Schawerda, 1925, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft15: 70, fig. 2. Type-locality: Switzerland, Zermatt. Type(s): in coll. LSNK;

Mamestra serratilinea var. heinrichi Schawerda, 1925, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 15: 70, fig. 2. Type-locality: France, Digne. Holotype: male, in coll. LSNK.

Polia (Polia) serratilinea eremorealis Varga, 1974

Polia serratilinea eremorealis Varga, 1974, Annales historico-naturales Musei nationalis hungarici 66: 306, fig. 11. Type-locality: Mongolia, Khovd aimak, 5 km SW of Khovd (Kobdo), 1500 m. Holotype: male, in coll. HNHM.

Polia (Polia) serratilinea kowatschevi Drenovsky, 1931

Polia serratilinea kowatschevi Drenovsky, 1931, Mitteilungen der Bulgarischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft in Sofia 6: 56. Type-locality: Makedonia, Ali Botush Mts. Holotype: male, in coll. NHM Sofia.

Polia (Polia) serratilinea pinkeri Varga, 1974

Polia serratilinea pinkeri Varga, 1974, Annales historico-naturales Musei nationalis hungarici 66: 307, fig. 11. Type-locality: Turkey, Prov. Kayseri, ErciyasDagh, Develi, 1700 m. Holotype: male, in coll. ZSM.

Polia (Polia) serratilinea spalax (Alphéraky, 1887)

Mamestra spalax Alphéraky, 1887, Entomologische Zeitung, Entomologischen Vereine zu Stettin 48: 168.Type-locality: [Kirghisia] Aram-Kungei. Lectotype: male, here designated, in coll. ZISP.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, “Aram-Kungaj” “Gr[oum].Gr[shimailo].” “Spalax Alph. Orig.” (Coll. ZISP).

Polia (Polia) serratilinea tenebricosa Hacker & Weigert, 1990

Polia serratilinea tenebricosa Hacker & Weigert, 1990, Esperiana 1: 339, pl. E, fig. 18, text fig. 57a. Type-locality: Pakistan, Himalaya Mts, Babusar Pass, 3200 m. Holotype: male, in coll. Weigert (Griesbach im Rottal).

Polia (Polia) subcontigua (Eversmann, 1852), stat. rev., comb. n.

Hadena subcontigua Eversmann, 1852, Bulletin de la Société Imperiale des Naturalistes de Moscou 25 (1): 155. Type-locality: [Russia, Orenburgskaya obl.] “Spask.” “Jul[y]” (handwritten labels). Holotype: female, in coll. ZISP.

Synonymy

Hadena altaica Lederer, 1853, Verhandlungen des Zoologisch-Botanischen Vereins in Wien 3: 370, pl. 2, fig. 6. Type-locality: [Russia or Kazakhstan] Altai Mts. Holotype: male, in coll. MNB; syn. n.

Mamestra monotona Bang-Haas, 1912, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 26: 145. Type-locality: [Russia] Sayan region. Syntypes: in coll. MNB.

Polia (Mamestra) praecontigua Turati, 1933, Bollettino della Societá Entomologica Italiana 65: 18. Type-locality: [India/Pakistan] Baltistan, Biaho valley near Baltoro. Syntypes, in coll. Turati (if exist).

Taxonomic notes

Based on the type catalogue of the Lepidoptera collection of ZISP it became evident that Hadena subcontigua Eversmann represent the same species as Hadena altaica Lederer and at the same time also its westernmost occurrence. This species exist in most localities from the Tien-Shan Mts. to Central Mongolia and also Nepal in polymorphic, contrasting vs. concolorous forms. Therefore, Mamestra monotona Bang-Haas cannot be considered as own taxon. According to the description and photos, the taxon Polia (Mamestra) praecontigua Turati, 1933 also represents this species. The occurrence of P. subcontigua in the Karakoram and the Western Himalayan mountains was confirmed by the recent surveys, too.

Polia (Polia) tiefi Püngeler, 1914

Figs 43, 44, 68, 69

Polia (Mamestra) tiefi Püngeler, 1914, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 28: 38, pl. 2, fig. 22. Type-locality: [Russia] Sayan Mts, Munko Sardyk. Lectotype: male, here designated, coll. MNB.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype male, Sayan Mts, Munko Sardyk; slide No.MB 417, coll. MNB.

Synonymy

Aplecta schawerdae Sheljuzhko, 1933, Zeitschrift des österreichischen Entomologen Vereines 18: 70, pl. 13.Type-locality: Russia, Siberia, Yakutsk Province, Dzhugzhur Mts. Syntypes: in coll. ZIN.

Polia (Polia) vespertilio (Draudt, 1934)

Aplecta vespertilio Draudt, 1934, in A. Seitz, Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 3: 109, pl. 14, row i. Type-locality: [Russia], Irkutsk, Tunkinski Mt. Lectotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, Irkutsk, Tunkinski Mt., slide No. Varga MB 2-75V, coll. MNB.

Polia (Polia) vesperugo Eversmann, 1856

Polia vesperugo Eversmann, 1856, Bulletin de la SociétéImpériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 29 (3): 48, pl. 2, fig. 6. Type-locality: [Russia] Transbaikalia, Irkutsk. Lectotype: female, here designated, in coll. ZISP.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: female, “Irkutsk”, “vesperugo”, Gen. sl. 00908 Kuznetzov; coll. ZISP.

Synonymy

Mamestra conspicua Bang-Haas, 1912, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 26: 144, pl. 6, fig. 8. Type-locality: [Russia] Sayan region. Holotype: male, in coll. MNB; syn. n.

Remarks

The lectotype female specimen is illustrated by A. Matov on the homepage of the ZISP.

Polia (Polia) vesperugo vasjurini Sukhareva, 1976, stat. rev.

Polia vasjurini Sukhareva, 1976, Proceedings of the Zoological Institute Academy of Sciences of USSR 64: 58, fig. 1. Type-locality: Russian Far East, Primorye territory, Partizansky district, Lysaya Benevskaya Mt. Holotype: male, in coll. ZISP.

Polia (Polia) vesperugo sabmeana Mikkola, 1980, stat. rev.

Polia sabmeana Mikkola, 1980, NotulaeEntomologicae 60: 217, figs 1, 3-4. Type-locality: Finland, Inari. Holotype: male, in coll. ZMUH.

Protopolia subgen. n.

Type-species

Mamestra praecipua Staudinger, 1895, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden8: 316.

Diagnosis

The three species belonging to this subgenus are large, robust moths with simple ochreous-brownish or purplish-blackish-brown (generally unicolorous but sometimes, individually, contrasting) colouration and regular pattern, somewhat resembling certain forms of Apamea monoglypha (Hufnagel, 1766).

In the male genitalia, the saccular processes are simple, short or acute, symmetrical, with prominent tuft of specialised setae on the right side. Vesica is tubular, relatively short and retroflexed, with only a short fascia of cornuti subterminally.

In the female genitalia, the appendix bursae is slightly prominent only, the corpus bursae has two short longitudinal signa.

Etymology

The name refers to the relative simplicity of colouration and configuration of male genitalia as opposed to the huge majority of Polia and Poliina, respectively.

Polia (Protopolia) minae Saldaitis, Benedek & Behounek, 2013

Polia minae Saldaitis, Benedek & Behounek, 2013, Zootaxa 3693(4): 594, figs 5-8, 13-16, 19-20. Type-locality: China, N. Sichuan, near Jiuzhaigou, 2100 m, 33°18,85’N, 103°55,5’E. Holotype: male, in coll. ZSM.

Polia (Protopolia) praecipua praecipua (Staudinger, 1895)

Mamestra praecipua Staudinger, 1895, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift, Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 8: 316. Type-locality: [China, Xinjiang-Qinghai] between Lob-Noor and Kuku-Noor. Lectotype: male, designated here in MNB.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: male, “Kuku-Noor 94 Rückb[ei]l.”, “Origin” (pink label), “Praecipua Stgr.” “Ex coll. 1/3 Staudinger”, slide No. GB 12024 (figured in Saldaitis et al. 2013), coll. MNB.

Polia (Protopolia) praecipua angusta (Hreblay & Ronkay, 1998)

Haderonia praecipua angusta Hreblay & Ronkay, 1998, in Haruta, T. (ed.) Tinea 15 (Supplement 1): 150, pl. 146, fig. 5. Type-locality: Nepal, Annapurna Himal, 11 km S of Jomsom, Noma pasture, 4000 m, 28°44,5’N, 83°48’E. Holotype: male, in coll. G. Ronkay (Budapest).

Polia (Protopolia) sublimis (Draudt, 1950)

Hadula sublimis Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft40: 37. Type-locality: China, Prov. Yunnan, A-tun-tse; Batang. Lectotype: male, in coll. ZFMK.

Pachetra Guenée, 1841

Pachetra Guenée, 1841, Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 10: 241. Type-species: Noctua leucophaea [Denis and Schiffermüller], 1775, by monotypy.

Pachetra sagittigera (Hufnagel, 1766)

Phalaena sagittigera Hufnagel, 1766, Berlinisches Magazin 3(3): 410. Type-locality: Germany, Berlin district. Type(s) destroyed.

Synonymy

Noctua leucophaea [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775, Ankündung eines systematischen Werkes von den Schmetterlingen der Wiener Gegend 1775: 82. Type-locality: [Austria] Vienna district. Types destroyed;

Bombyx fulminea Fabricius, 1781, Species Insectorum Exhibentes Eorum Differentias Specificas, Synonyma Auctorum, Loca Natalia, Metamorphosis in Adiectis, Observationibus, Descriptionibus 2: 205. Type-locality: [Germany] Hamburg;

Bombyx vestigialis Esper, 1785, Die Schmetterlinge in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen 3: 270, pl. 53, fig. 5. Type-locality: [Germany] Leipzig;

Hadena bombycina Eversmann, 1847, Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 20(3): 78, pl. 6, figs 1-2. Type-locality: [Russia] Urals. Syntypes: in coll. ZIN;

Mamestra leucophaea var. incana Milliére, 1885, Il Naturalista Siciliano 4: 198. Type-locality: [Italy, Sicily] St. Martin, Berthemot;

Pachetra leucophaea brittanica Turner, 1933, Entomologist’s Record and Journal of Variation 45: 282. Type-locality: “British examples”. Syntypes: in coll. BMNH.

Pachetra sagittigera pyrenaica Oberthür, 1884, stat. rev.

Pachetra leucophaea var. pyrenaica Oberthür, 1884, Études d’Entomologie 8: 50. Type-locality: France, Pyrenees, Cauterets. Type(s): in coll. BMNH.

Pachetra sagittigera bombycina Eversmann, 1847

Hadena bombycina Eversmann, 1847, Bulletin de la Société Impériale des Naturalistes de Moscou 20(3): 78, pl. 6, figs 1-2. Type-locality: [Russia] Urals. Syntypes: in coll. ZIN.

Taxonomic note

The small, short-winged and contrasting P. sagittigera specimens from Mongolia were considered as belonging to this subspecies until yet (Sheljuzhko 1967). The question needs further survey.

Pachetra cherrug (Rákosy &Wieser, 1997), comb. n.

Figs 45, 46, 70, 71

Polia cherrug Rákosy & Wieser, 1997, Linzer Biologische Beiträge 29: 1153. Type-locality: Romania, N Dobrogea, Macin Mts, Greci. Holotype: male, in coll. L. Rákosy (Cluj-Napoca).

Taxonomic notes

P. cherrug shows in the genitalia of both sexes a very close relationship with P. sagittigera. The shared characters are as follows: in male genitalia the similar and unusual shape of the cucullus, the very long tubular and completely helicoid vesica nearly completely covered by a long and broad stripe of dense spinulose structures; in female genitalia the long and broad, dorso-ventrally flattened ductus bursae, the similar shape of the appendix bursae and one long and one shorter stripe of sigma. Both species are also bionomically closely related, they have grass-feeding larvae in contrast to the dicot herbaceous and woody food plants of Polia spp. The distribution and certain taxonomic questions are discussed in detail by Dinca (2010).

Tricheurois Hampson, 1905

Tricheurois Hampson, 1905, Annals and Magazine of Natural History 7(15): 451. Type-species: Mamestra nigrocuprea Moore, 1867, by original designation.

Synonymy

Acanthopolia Boursin, 1943, Zeitschrift der Wiener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 50: 339. Type-species: Apamea cuprina Moore, 1881, by original designation.

Tricheurois cuprina (Moore, 1881)

Apamea cuprina Moore, 1881, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London 1881: 345, pl. 38, fig. 2. Type-locality: India, Sikkim. Holotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Tricheurois nigrocuprea (Moore, 1867)

Mamestra nigrocuprea Moore, 1867, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London1867: 52. Type-locality: [India or Bangladesh] Bengal. Lectotype: male, dissected by M. Hreblay (slide No. HM8376); in coll. BMNH.

Tricheurois retrusa (Püngeler, 1906)

Polia (Mamestra) retrusa Püngeler, 1906, Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. Gesellschaft Iris zu Dresden 19: 91, pl. 7, fig. 13. Type-locality: [China, Qinghai] Tibet, Kuku-Noor. Holotype: male, in coll. MNB.

Tricheurois tamangi Hreblay & Plante, 1996

Tricheurois tamangi Hreblay & Plante, 1996, Lambillionea 96: 665, figs 11-12, 35-36. Type-locality: Nepal, Ganesh Himal, Khurpudanda Pass, 3600 m, 28°12’N, 85°13’E. Holotype: male, in coll. MNHG.

Tricheurois tibetica Boursin, 1965

Tricheurois tibetica Boursin, 1965, Zeitschrift der Wiener Entomologischen Gesellschaft 50: 119, pl. 14, fig. 1. Type-locality: India, Sikkim, Yatung (“Tibet, Yatung”), 4500 m. Holotype: male, in coll. SMNK.

Poliina incertae sedis

Polia (Mamestra) confusa Turati, 1933, Bollettino della Societá Entomologica Italiana 65(1): 19. Type-locality: [China/India/Pakistan] valley of the Tarim; [Pakistan] Deosai Plains. Syntypes: 4 females, 2 males, in coll. Turati (if exist).

Genera and species excluded from Poliina

Kollariana Hacker, 1996, stat. rev.

Kollariana Hacker, 1996, Esperiana 4: 386. Type-species: Polia scotochlora Kollar, 1849, by original designation.

Taxonomic notes

Despite of the “Polia-like” habitus the genital structures of both sexes clearly show that Kollariana belong to the “Sideridis” line of the subtribe Mamestrina (See also: Introduction). In the male genitalia, the genital capsule is very similar to that of certain large Sideridis species as e.g. S. turbida (Esper, 1790) or S. egena (Lederer, 1853). The diagnostic features are as follows: valva without saccular process and ampulla, but with ear-shaped costal process near to cucullus; aedeagus with claw- or spine-shaped sclerotisation of carina; vesica T-shaped, with long subbasal diverticulum and acute cornutus. In the female genitalia there are two complete and one shorter row of small, elliptical stigmata on the corpus bursae; the ductus bursae is rather strongly sclerotised with lateral pouch corresponding to the sclerotised extension of carina.

Kollariana albomixta (Draudt, 1950), comb. n.

Polia albomixta Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 31, pl. 2, fig. 13. Type-locality: China, Prov. Yunnan, Li-kiang. Holotype: female, in coll. ZFMK.

Kollariana scotochlora (Kollar, 1844)

Polia scotochlora Kollar, 1844, in Hügel, Kaschmir das Reich der Siek 4: 480.Type-locality: (India) Kashmir, (Mussorree) Massuri. Holotype: male, in coll. BMNH.

Synonymy

Polia stevensii Guenée, 1852, in Boisduval and Guenée, Histoire Naturelle des Insectes, Species général de Lépidoptéres 6: 38. Type-locality: Central India. Holotype: male, in coll. BMNH.

Kollariana similissima Plante, 1982

Polia similissima Plante, 1982, Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France 87: 286, figs 1-2, 9-10. Type-locality: Type-locality: Nepal, Langtang Himal, Kyangin Gompa, 3900 m. Holotype: male, in coll. MNHG.

Multisigna gen. n.

Type-species

Polia costirufa Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 28, pl. 2, fig. 9, here designated.

Diagnosis

The two species of this new genus show some external similarity with the larger Polia species (as e.g. P. vesperugo) but they also resemble the larger Sideridis species (as e.g. S. egena, S. turbida) but also Apamea species according the robust body, dark brownish-greyish colouration and pattern of fore wing with regular maculation and crenulate or zigzag-shaped crosslines. The most important differential characters are in the genitalia of both sexes. In male genitalia the saccular part of valvae is not extended, no any trend of asymmetrisation and/or presence of specialised saccular brushes can be observed. Free „clasper” of the harpe-ampulla complex – which is usually present in Polia – is reduced. Vesica is not elongate-tubular as in Polia, but it shows the modified form of the T-shaped vesica of the Sideridis-clade of the Mamestrina while it is more saccate with subbasal diverticulum and the subterminal field of cornuti is transformed to a single huge cornutus, unusual for other related genera. The female genitalia are also strikingly different from Polia but also from the genera of the subtribe Mamestrina (e.g. Sideridis, Conisania which seem to be most closely related) by the presence of very numerous pearl-shaped signa and by the conical appendages of ductus bursae. Based on these characters we place this genus near to the also habitually similar genera Kollariana and Irene.

Etymology

The generic name refers to the most peculiar character of the female genitalia.

Multisigna hofer (Saldaitis, Benedek & Behounek, 2016), comb. n.

Polia hofer Saldaitis, Benedek & Behounek, 2016, Zootaxa 4093(4): 577. Type-locality: China, Sichuan, 20 km N of Maoxian. Holotype: male, in coll. G. Behounek (later in ZSM).

Multisigna costirufa (Draudt, 1950), comb. n.

Figs 47, 48, 72

Polia costirufa Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 28, pl. 2, fig. 9. Type-locality: [China] Yunnan, Batang, Yangtze valley, 2800 m. Lectotype: female, here designated, in coll. ZFMK.

Lectotype designation

Lectotype: female, “Batang (Tibet), im Tal des Yangtze (ca 2800 m), 10.5.1936, H. Höne”, “Holotype Polia costirufa ♀ Draudt” (pinkish label), “Polia costirufa ♀ Draudt”, “Polia costirufa 4497”, “Gen. Prp. 4497 ♀ Holotypus, Polia costirufa (Drdt.), CHINA/Tibet, Behounek det. 1990” (red bordered label); in coll. ZFMK.

Irene Saldaitis & Benedek, 2017

Irene Saldaitis & Benedek, 2017, Zootaxa 4238(2): 275. Type-species: Irene litanga Saldaitis & Benedek, 2017, by original designation.

Irene litanga Saldaitis & Benedek, 2017

Irene litanga Saldaitis & Benedek, 2017, Zootaxa 4238(2): 276. Type-locality: China, Sichuan, near Litang. Holotype: male, in coll. G. Behounek (later ZSM).

Taxonomic notes

As it was stated correctly in the original description, this genus shows close relationship with Hada Billberg, 1820, especially to Hada tenebra, etc. The lateral “pouches” of ductus also show some similarity to Kollariana but the short, globular corpus bursae without signa clearly shows that this genus is differentiated from the former genus.

Spiramater McCabe, 1980, stat. n.

Spiramater McCabe, 1980, Bulletin of the New York State Museum 432: 10 (key), 31. Type-species: Hadena lutra Guenée, 1852, by original designation.

Taxonomic notes

This genus is not closely related with Polia. Recently (Lafontaine and Schmidt 2010, Zookeys 40: 90) S. lutra (Guenée, 1852) was associated with Lacanobia and S. grandis (Guenée, 1852) was introduced to this genus (Lacanobia grandis).

Tycomarptes proximoides (Wiltshire, 1982)

Haderonia proximoides Wiltshire, 1982, Fauna of Saudi Arabia 4: 311, pl. 3 fig. 37. Type-locality: Saudi Arabia, Risayah. Holotype: male, in coll. BMNH.

Taxonomic notes

This curiously looking Arabian species was illustrated by Hacker (2006; Esperiana12: 352; Pl. 9, fig. 8) as belonging to the genus Tycomarptes Fletcher, 1961, however, without argumentation.

Conisania roseipicta (Draudt, 1950)

Polia roseipicta Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 29, pl. 2, fig. 10. Type-locality: [China] Yunnan, Atuntse. Holotype: male, in coll. ZFMK.

Taxonomic notes

The species was first proposed to transfer from Polia to the Sideridis-Conisania generic complex by Boursin (1966). Subsequently, Varga and Ronkay (1991) listedthe species in the genus Conisania Hampson, 1905 in the general survey of the genus-group (p. 152; figs 98-99). The vesica of the holotype specimen has not been everted by Boursin; the recent investigations indicated the T-shaped vesica structure which is typical of certain species-groups of Conisania.

Mythimna (Morphopoliana) yuennana (Draudt, 1950)

Polia yuennana Draudt, 1950, Mitteilungen der Münchner Entomologischen Gesellschaft 40: 27, pl. 2, fig. 6. Type-locality: [China] Yunnan, Atuntse. Syntypes: in coll. ZFMK.

Taxonomic notes

The species has long been misplaced although the male genitalia illustrated already by Draudt in the original description (Draudt 1950: Plate 13, fig. 15), versus its closest relative, M. (M.) consanguis (Guenée, 1852) (Plate 13, fig. 16). The subgenus Morphopoliana was erected by Hreblay and Legrain in 1996; Polia yuennana was transferred to Mythimna (Morphopoliana) in the 4th volume of the Noctuidae Europaeae series (Hacker et al. 2002), using the World Checklist of M. Hreblay and A. Legrain.

Figure 1–8. 

1. Ctenoceratoda brassicina (Draudt, 1934) Holotype male. 2. Ctenoceratoda brassicina (Draudt, 1934) Holotype male, labels. 3. Ctenoceratoda contempta (Püngeler, 1914) Lectotype male. 4. Ctenoceratoda contempta (Püngeler, 1914) Lectotype male, labels. 5. Ctenoceratoda graeseri (Püngeler, 1898) Lectotype male. 6. Ctenoceratoda graeseri (Püngeler, 1898) Lectotype male, labels. 7. Ctenoceratoda longicornis (Graeser, 1892) Lectotype, male. 8. Ctenoceratoda longicornis (Graeser, 1892) Lectotype male, labels.

Figure 9–16. 

9. Ctenoceratoda longicornis (Graeser, 1892) Paralectotype male. 10. Ctenoceratoda longicornis (Graeser, 1892) Paralectotype male, labels. 11. Ctenoceratoda lupa (Christoph, 1893) Lectotype male. 12. Ctenoceratoda lupa (Christoph, 1893) Lectotype male, labels. 13. Ctenoceratoda nefasta (Püngeler, 1907) Lectotype male. 14. Ctenoceratoda nefasta (Püngeler, 1907) Lectotype male, labels. 15. Ctenoceratoda optima (Alphéraky, 1897) Lectotype male. 16. Ctenoceratoda optima (Alphéraky, 1897) Lectotype male, labels.

Figure 17–24. 

17. Ctenoceratoda leucostigma Gyulai & Varga, 2010 Holotype male. 18. Ctenoceratoda leucostigma Gyulai and Varga, 2010 Holotype male, labels. 19. Ctenoceratoda tancrei (Graeser, 1892) Lectotype male. 20. Ctenoceratoda tancrei (Graeser, 1892) Lectotype male, labels. 21. Ctenoceratoda turpis (Staudinger, 1900) Paralectotype female. 22. Ctenoceratoda turpis (Staudinger, 1900) Paralectotype female, labels. 23. Haderonia aplectoides (Draudt, 1950) Lectotype male. 24. Haderonia aplectoides (Draudt, 1950) Lectotype male, labels.

Figure 25–32. 

25. Haderonia lasiestrina (Draudt, 1950) Lectotype male. 26. Haderonia lasiestrina (Draudt, 1950) Lectotype male, labels. 27. Polia (Atropolia) mortua szetschwana Draeseke, 1928 Lectotype male. 28. Polia (Atropolia) mortua szetschwana Draeseke, 1928 Lectotype male, labels. 29. Polia (Atropolia) posterodiluta sp. n. Holotype male. 30. Polia (Atropolia) posterodiluta sp. n. Holotype male, labels. 31. Polia (Leuconephropolia) albirena Draudt, 1950 Lectotype male. 32. Polia (Leuconephropolia) albirena Draudt, 1950 Lectotype male, labels.

Figure 33–40. 

33. Polia (Polia) atrax Draudt, 1950 Lectotype male. 34. Polia (Polia) atrax Draudt, 1950 Lectotype male, labels. 35. Polia (Polia) griseifusa Draudt, 1950 Lectotype female. 36. Polia (Polia) griseifusa Draudt, 1950 Lectotype female, labels. 37. Polia (Polia) lama lama (Staudinger, 1896) Holotype male. 38. Polia (Polia) lama lama (Staudinger, 1896) Holotype male, labels. 39. Polia (Polia) lama enodata (Bang-Haas, 1912) Lectotype male. 40. Polia (Polia) lama enodata (Bang-Haas, 1912) Lectotype male, labels.

Figure 41–48. 

41. Polia (Polia) serratilinea serratilinea (Treitschke, 1825) Lectotype male. 42. Polia (Polia) serratilinea serratilinea (Treitschke, 1825) Lectotype male, labels. 43. Polia (Polia) tiefi Püngeler, 1914 Lectotype male. 44. Polia (Polia) tiefi Püngeler, 1914 Lectotype male, labels. 45. Pachetra cherrug (Rákosy & Wieser, 1997) Paratype male. 46. Pachetra cherrug (Rákosy & Wieser, 1997) Paratype male, labels. 47. Multisigna costirufa (Draudt, 1950) Holotype female. 48. Multisigna costirufa (Draudt, 1950) Holotype female, labels.

Figure 49–51. 

49. Ctenoceratoda brassicina (Draudt, 1934) Holotype female. 50. Ctenoceratoda contempta (Püngeler, 1914) Lectotype male. 51. Ctenoceratoda graeseri (Püngeler, 1898) Lectotype male.

Figure 52–54. 

52. Ctenoceratoda longicornis (Graeser, 1892) Lectotype male. 53. Ctenoceratoda longicornis (Graeser, 1892) Paralectotype male. 54. Ctenoceratoda lupa (Christoph, 1893) Lectotype male.

Figure 58–60. 

58. Ctenoceratoda turpis (Staudinger, 1900) Lectotype male. 59. Haderonia aplectoides (Draudt, 1950) Paralectotype male. 60. Haderonia lasiestrina (Draudt, 1950) Lectotype male.

Figure 55–57. 

55. Ctenoceratoda nefasta (Püngeler, 1907) Lectotype male. 56. Ctenoceratoda optima (Alphéraky, 1897) Lectotype male. 57. Ctenoceratoda tancrei (Graeser, 1892) Paralectotype male.

Figure 61–63. 

61. Polia (Atropolia) mortua szetschwana Draeseke, 1928 Lectotype male. 62. Polia (Atropolia) posterodiluta sp. n. Holotype male. 63. Polia (Leuconephropolia) albirena Draudt, 1950 Lectotype male.

Figure 64–66. 

64. Polia (Polia) atrax Draudt, 1950 Lectotype male. 65. Polia (Polia) griseifusa Draudt, 1950. 66. Polia (Polia) lama lama (Staudinger, 1896) Holotype male.

Figure 67–71. 

67. Polia (Polia) lama enodata (Bang-Haas, 1912) Lectotype male. 68. Polia (Polia) tiefi Püngeler, 1914 Lectotype male. 69. Polia (Polia) tiefi Püngeler, 1914 Paralectotype male.

Figure 70–72. 

70. Pachetra cherrug (Rákosy & Wieser, 1997) Paratype male. 71. Pachetra cherrug (Rákosy & Wieser, 1997) Paratype female. 72. Multisigna costirufa (Draudt, 1950).

Acknowledgements

The Authors acknowledge the fees waivers by the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin. Our sincere thanks to Martin Honey, Alberto Zilli and Geoff Martin (London, England), Martin Lödl and Sabine Gaal-Haszler (Vienna, Austria), Wolfram Mey (Berlin, Germany), Alexej Y. Matov (St. Petersburg, Russia), Dieter Stüning (Bonn, Germany), Axel Hausmann and Ulf Buchsbaum (Munich, Germany), Robert Trusch (Karlsruhe, Germany), Joel Minet and Jerome Barbut (Paris, France), Peter Huemer and Gerhard Tarmann (Innsbruck, Austria), Anton Volynkin (Barnaul, Russia), Hermann-Heinrich Hacker (Staffelstein, Germany), Bert Gustafsson and Tobias Malm (Stockholm Sweden), Erik Nieukerken and Rob de Vos (Leiden, Netherlands); Matthias Nuss (Dresden, Germany), Bernard Landry (Geneva, Switzerland), Oleg Pekarsky (Budapest, Hungary), Péter Gyulai and Adrienne Garai-Gyulai (Miskolc, Hungary), Gyula M. László (Leominster, England), László Rákosy (Cluj, Rumania), Kauri Mikkola († Helsinki, Finland); Christian Wieser (Klagenfurt, Austria), Stoyan Beshkov (Sofia, Bulgaria), José Luis Yela (Toledo, Spain), Vladimir S. Kononenko (Vladivostok, Russia) and Aidas Saldaitis (Vilnius, Lithuania) for the bibliographic and nomenclatural information and the exact data of certain type materials and colour images of hardly accessible species.

Our special thanks to Armin Becher (Freudenberg, Germany), Gottfried Behounek (Grafing bei München, Germany), Andreas Bergmann (Forst, Germany), Alessandro Floriani (Milan, Italy),Béla Herczig (Baj, Hungary), Franz Hofer (Baden, Austria), Günter Stangelmaier (Villach, Austria), and Johann Stumpf (Lauda, Germany) for their kind support of our studies.

Authors are grateful to Wolfgang Speidel for useful suggestions which essentially improved this review.

We are especially grateful to Martin Lödl and Sabine Gaal-Haszler (Vienna, Austria), Csenkey Lórántné and Mária Tóth-Ronkay (Budapest, Hungary), Ádám Kiss (Gyöngyös, Hungary) and Péter Kozma (Debrecen, Hungary) for their immense and essential help in the microscopic photography and the continuous support in our work.

Present survey was financially supported by the K 116694grant of the National Foundation of Research, Development and Innovation (NKFI-OTKA); also OTKA T16465 and OTKA T73597 (Z. Varga) and by the SYNTHESYS Project which is financed by European Community Research Infrastructure Action under the FP6 „Structuring the European Research Area” Programme; Grants Nos: NL-TAF 3007 and DE-TAF-6708 (Z. Varga); GB-TAF-2644, DE-TAF-3514 and AT-TAF-5609 (G. Ronkay); GB-TAF-2656, FR-TAF-562 and SE-TAF-6919 (Stockholm) (L. Ronkay).

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