Print
Revision of Zosteragathis Sharkey of Thailand (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae, Agathidini)
expand article infoMichael J. Sharkey, Eric G. Chapman
‡ Limestone University of Kentucky, Lexington, United States of America
Open Access

Abstract

Based on cladistic analyses recently conducted by Sharkey and Chapman, the genus Zosteragathis Sharkey is revised. Twenty-two species are reported from Thailand, three previously described species, Z. samensis, Z. contrasta and Z. nuichuaensis, and 19 new species, i.e., Z. chaiyaphumensis, Z. eukos, Z. hinensis, Z. hongensis, Z. inthanonensis, Z. krachanensis, Z. lampangensis, Z. lampooensis, Z. luangensis, Z. ngamensis, Z. perknos, Z. petchaburiensis, Z. phahompokensis, Z. phuphanensis, Z. sakaeratensis, Z. sakonensis, Z. samensis, Z. surinensis, Z. taemensis, Z. tonensis. Members of Zosteragathis are known from the Australian, Ethiopian, Oceania, Oriental, and eastern Palaearctic regions.

Key Words

Insecta, identification key, taxonomy, systematics

Introduction

Agathidinae is a moderately large subfamily the members of which are koinobiont endoparasitoids of lepidopterous larvae. For more general information on Agathidinae see Sharkey et al. (2006). As of 2005, roughly 1,000 species were described (Yu et al. 2005). The senior author (MJS), based on the number of new species in recent revisions (see below), believes that there are a magnitude more undescribed species. Zosteragathis is restricted to the Old World. It is very diverse with species richness in the hundreds, but most of these are undescribed. This paper is part of a series that investigates members of the massively paraphyletic genus Bassus s.l.. (Sharkey and Clutts 2011, Sharkey et al. 2011a and b, Sharkey and Stoelb 2012 and 2013, Sharkey and Chapman 2017a, b). The generic concept Bassus is now confined to a small clade restricted to The Palearctic and Oriental realms, Zosteragathis Sharkey (Sharkey and Chapman 2017a), includes 25 previously described species (24 currently recognized as valid), all of which were previously included in the polyphyletic concepts of Agathis s.l., Bassus s.l. and Therophilus s.l. i.e.:

Z. annuliferus (Achterberg & Long, 2010), comb. n., from Therophilus

Z. annulus (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), from Bassus

Z. asper (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), from Bassus

Z. conformis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), from Agathis

Z. contrasta (Achterberg & Long, 2010), from Therophilus (as contrastus)

Z. coryphe (Nixon, 1950), from Agathis

Z. depressa (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), from Bassus (as depressus)

Z. dravida (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), from Agathis

Z. elongator (Achterberg & Long, 2010), from Therophilus

Z. festiva (Muesebeck, 1953), from Agathis

Z. festivoides (Sharkey, 1996), from Bassus

Z. fujianicus (Chen & Yang, 2006), from Bassus

Z. gracilis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), from Agathis

Z. lienhuachihensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), from Bassus

Z. lini (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), from Bassus

Z. masoni (Bhat & Gupta, 1977), from Agathis

Z. nigrolineatus (Achterberg & Long, 2010), from Therophilus

Z. nuichuaensis (Achterberg & Long, 2010), from Therophilus

Z. oranae (Watanabe, 1970), (syn. of Agathis festiva, by Sharkey 1996)

Z. parasper (Achterberg & Long, 2010), from Therophilus

Z. punctiscutum (Achterberg & Long, 2010), from Therophilus

Z. robusta (Achterberg & Long, 2010), from Therophilus (as robustus)

Z. scutellatus (Achterberg & Long, 2010), from Therophilus

Z. sungkangensis (Chou & Sharkey, 1989), from Bassus

Z. tanycoleosus (Chen & Yang, 2006), from Bassus

Methods

Morphological terms : The length of the first metasomal median tergite is measured from the apex of the tendon emanating from the propodeum to the posterior border of the tergite. Metasomal median tergites are abbreviated as follows, T1 = metasomal median tergite 1, T2 = metasomal median tergite 2. T2–3 = metasomal median syntergite 2 + 3. Other terms are from Sharkey and Wharton (1997). Morphological terms used in this revision can be found in the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO; Yoder et al. 2010). To find definitions for any structure search for the term at http://glossary.hymao.org.

Museum acronyms

HIC Hymenoptera Institute Collection, University of Kentucky, Department of Entomology, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

QSBG Queen Sirikit Botanic Gardens, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Species description format : Descriptions are of the holotype; variation is given in parentheses. Color is not extensively described because the images serve this purpose; however color characters that are variable or of diagnostic significance are detailed. All species are treated with a diagnosis and distributional data. They are illustrated with color photos using a JVC digital camera mounted on a Leica MZ16 microscope and AutomontageR stacking software.

Species delimitation : We used evidence from molecular data (COI and 28S) and morphology to arrive at species concepts. Details are given in Sharkey and Stoelb (2013). Table 1 gives details on the COI distances within species of Zosteragathis as well as distances to the nearest species.

COI divergence data COI data for each species. If a species has more than one terminal, both intra- and interspecific uncorrected p-distances are reported. Interspecific p-distances are to the nearest OTU in the COI tree (not shown). Values are averaged if two or more comparisons are made.

Species Intraspecific variation Interspecific variation Nearest species
Z. contrasta 0.318% 3.899% Z. taemensis
Z. eukos 5.234% Z. ngamensis
Z. hongensis 1.414% Z. sakonensis
Z. inthanonensis 5.801% Z. ngamensis
Z. krachanensis 4.683% Z. nuichuaensis
Z. lampangensis 0.491% 5.2365% Z. inthanonensis
Z. lampooensis 0% 1.514% Z. taemensis
Z. lunagensis 0% Zosteragathis sp. n. 2
Z. ngamensis 5.801% Z. inthanonensis
Z. nuichuaensis 0% 3.038% Zosteragathis sp. n. 2
Z. perknos 5.221% Z. ngamensis
Z. petchaburiensis 6.428% Z. contrastus
Z. phahompokensis 1.972% Z. tonensis
Z. sakonensis 1.414% Z. hongensis
Z. samensis 0.920% 4.074% Z. surinensis
Zosteragathis sp. n. 2 0% Z. lunagensis
Z. surinensis 4.074% Z. samensis
Z. taemensis 1.514% Z. lampooensis
Z. tonensis 1.972% Z. phahompokensis

Specimen collection : As part of the inventory of Thai insects, three Malaise traps at each of 30 different localities throughout Thailand were operated from 2007–2010, comprising approximately 90 trap-years. The specimens dealt with here are primarily from these traps. Two numbers, beginning with the letters “H” and “T” are listed for each specimen collected by our collaborators in Thailand. The H-number is the specimen number. Specimen information is stored in the Symbiota database (Gries et al. 2014) under the Hymenoptera Institute Collection (HIC). (Symbiota Collections of Arthropods Network; http://symbiota4.acis.ufl.edu/scan/portal/). To search for a specimen in the database, do the following: Under the Search tab (upper left of the screen), select Search Collections. Deselect all collections, and scroll down the Southeast section, put a check in the box next to Hymenoptera Institute Collection, scroll back up and hit the Search > button (right side of screen). H-numbered specimens are stored with a 4- letter prefix (HICH) followed by a 6-digit number. Therefore, H660, as it appears in this publication, is stored as HICH000660. To search for this specimen, scroll down to the Specimen Criteria section, type this number in the box next to Catalog Number and hit the search button. This displays a page with a summary of the specimen information. Clicking on Full Record Details opens a new window with the full specimen record, including all available images. The T-number is the number associated with a single Malaise trap for a single trapping period (usually one week). A complete list of these numbers and associated collection events is available from the authors upon request.

Links to species maps in this paper were generated from the Symbiota database. These are not static maps and as georeferenced specimens are added to the database, the maps will update in real time such that a reader following a map link will see a map of all of the specimens of the taxon at hand in the database, including those that may have been added after this paper is published. Clicking on the dots on these maps links to the specimen record in the database.

Phylogenetic methods : The data set and analyses presented herein is from Sharkey and Chapman (2017a). In that paper, the Zosteragathis terminals were largely unnamed, leaving species descriptions for this paper. In short, we conducted maximum likelihood (ML) phylogenetic analyses on a concatenated COI + 28S dataset (1,313 total characters) using Garli (v. 2.01; Zwickl 2006). The 28S multiple alignment was assembled using the default settings on the MAFFT server (http://mafft.cbrc.jp/alignment/server/; v. 7; Katoh et al. 2006), and employing the Q-INS-i strategy which takes secondary RNA structure into account. All 28S bases were included in subsequent phylogenetic analyses. The data were partitioned by gene region and codon position (COI: 3 partitions; 28S: un-partitioned, total of 4 partitions). The most complex model available (GTR+I+G; Rodriguez et al. 1990) was applied to each partition as per recommendations of Huelsenbeck and Rannala (2004). A 20-replicate ML search for the tree of highest log-likelihood and a 500-replicate ML bootstrap analysis (Felsenstein 1985) were conducted using the default settings. Outgroup genera (Alabagrus, Braunsia, Aerophilus, Camptothlipsis and Neothlipsis) were selected based on two criteria: (1) they comprise genera that are members of three clades that are successively sister to the ingroup clade in the phylogeny in Sharkey and Chapman (2017b), and (2) full length sequences of COI and 28S were available for most of these OTUs. The data set analyzed herein is available from the authors upon request. All of the specimens for which we have DNA sequences are listed in Appendix I, including their accession numbers.

Phylogenetic considerations : Sharkey and Chapman (2017b) revised the agathidine tribes and showed that Zosteragathis falls within the Agathidini. They could not demonstrate the monophyly of Zosteragathis, but confounded with the choice of erecting four genera for morphologically uniform clades, or one genus for the lot, they opted for the latter. The cladogram in Figure 1 shows that none of basal clades that separate the four Zosteragathis clades have support, therefore it is entirely possible that the genus is monophyletic.

Figure 1. 

Tree of highest log-likelihood from 20 ML search reps of a combined COI+28S data set with bootstrap values ≥50% (500 search replicates) plotted at the nodes. Tree modified from Sharkey and Chapman (2017a).

Results and discussion

Below is a discussion of the taxonomy of Zosteragathis, a key to the Thai species of this genus, and descriptions of each species.

Taxonomy

Zosteragathis Sharkey, 2017

Type species

Zosteragathis samensis Sharkey, 2017

Diagnosis

Most species can be recognized as members of this genus by the combination of finely microsculptured striae on T2 that end abruptly just anterior to the posterior margin of the tergite; this in combination with a pale colored band in the anterior half of T2, or T2 entirely black. Some species have reduced striae on T2 and are recognized by the lack of apomorphic structures that distinguish other closely related genera, e.g., claws not simple; interantennal space without a sharply declivous keel; T1 without prominent lateral carinae or medial carina; fore tarsus without spines or pegs.

Description

See Sharkey and Chapman 2017a.

Biology

Hosts are unknown for all Thai species however there are records for three extra-Thailand species. These appear to suggest that the host range is wide. The records are: Zosteragathis coryphe was reared from Phycodes radiata (Sesioidea: Brachodidae) (Nixon 1950). Zosteragathis festiva (Muesebeck) was reared from Grapholitha molesta, oriental fruit moth, (Tortricoidea: Tortricidae) and many other Lepidoptera from a wide range of families, i.e., Blastobasidae, Gelechiidae, Cossidae, Carposinidae, Noctuidae, and Pyralidae. See Yu (2012) for a complete list. Zosteragathis robusta (Achterberg and Long) from Vietnam was reared from “Omiodes indicata (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Pyraustinae) on soybean (Glycine max (Linnaeus)), according to the label data”, (van Achterberg and Long 2010).

Distribution

Australian, Ethiopian, Oceania, Oriental, and eastern Palearctic regions.

Etymology

From the Greek zoster, meaning “belt or girdle” and agathis the type genus of the subfamily. Zoster is a reference to the diagnostic pale colored transverse band that is usually present on T2. The gender is feminine.

Key to Thai species of Zosteragathis

1 A. Mesoscutum pale, yellow to orange 2
B. Mesoscutum melanic, black 4
2 A. Scutellum rugose; T2 distinctly longer than wide; head mostly or entirely yellow to orange Z. ngamensis
B. Scutellum smooth with punctures; T2 as wide as long or wider; head mostly or entirely black; pale color, if present restricted to the gena 3
3 A. T1 mostly or entirely pale (white to yellow) Z. hongensis
B. T1 mostly or entirely melanic (brown to black) Z. contrasta
4 A. Scutellum rugose 5
B. Scutellum smooth with punctures 7
5 A. T2 as wide as long or wider Z. nuichuaensis
B. T2 distinctly longer than wide 6
6 A. T2 entirely or almost entirely (80%) pale (white to yellow) Z. krachanensis
B. T2 mostly pale (white to yellow) in anterior half and mostly melanic (brown to black) in posterior half Z. luangensis
7 A. T2 as wide as long or wider 18
B. T2 distinctly longer than wide 8
8 A. Pronotum melanic dorsomedially, concolorous with lateral surfaces of pronotum 9
B. Pronotum pale dorsomedially (yellow to orange), contrasting with melanic lateral surfaces of pronotum 11
9 A. T2 entirely or almost entirely (>70%) pale (white to yellow) Z. lampangensis
B. T2 entirely or almost entirely (>70%) melanic (dark brown to black) 10
C. T2 mostly pale (white to yellow) in anterior half and mostly melanic (brown to black) in posterior half Z. inthanonensis
10 A. Fore wing with a small infuscate area posterior to stigma; apex of T1 yellow Z. inthanonensis
B. Fore wing without a small infuscate area posterior to stigma; apex of T1 melanic (brown to black) Z. perknos
11 A. Hind femur mostly or entirely pale, yellow to orange 12
B. Hind femur mostly or entirely melanic, brown to black 13
12 A. T2 entirely or almost entirely (80%) pale (white to yellow) Z. lampangensis
B. T2 mostly pale (white to yellow) in anterior half and mostly melanic (brown to black) in posterior half Z. surinensis
13 A. Striae of T2 curving towards the midline 14
B. Striae of T2 relatively straight 15
14 A. T2 entirely or almost entirely (>70%) pale (white to yellow) Z. lampangensis
B. T2 entirely or almost entirely (>70%) melanic (dark brown to black); or C. T2 mostly pale (white to yellow) in anterior half and mostly melanic (brown to black) in posterior half Z. phuphanensis
15 A. T2 entirely or almost entirely (>70%) pale (white to yellow) Z. lampangensis
B. T2 entirely or almost entirely (>70%) melanic (dark brown to black) Z. lampooensis
C. T2 mostly pale (white to yellow) in anterior half and mostly melanic (brown to black) in posterior half 16
16 A. Exposed portion of ovipositor longer than body length Z. tonensis
B. Exposed portion of ovipositor equal to or shorter than body length 17
17 A. Fore coxa mostly or entirely yellow Z. lampooensis
B. Fore coxa mostly or entirely melanic Z. hinensis
18 A. T2 entirely or almost entirely (>70%) pale (white to yellow) Z. sakonensis
B. T2 entirely or almost entirely (>70%) melanic (dark brown to black) 19
C. T2 mostly pale (white to yellow) in anterior half and mostly melanic (brown to black) in posterior half 22
19 A. Hind femur mostly or entirely pale, yellow to orange Z. sakaeratensis
B. Hind femur mostly or entirely melanic, brown to black 20
20 A. Fore wing with a small infuscate area posterior to stigma Z. chaiyaphumensis
B. Fore wing without a small infuscate area posterior to stigma 21
21 A. T2 almost entirely melanic Z. eukos
B. T2 mostly melanic, but pale, yellow to orange, anteriorly and anterolaterally Z. petchaburiensis
22 A. T1 extensively pale, white to yellow, basally Z. phahompokensis
B. T1 mostly or entirely melanic basally 23
23 A. Scutellar groove pale, yellowish brown, significantly lighter than remainder of mesonotum Z. taemensis
B. Scutellar groove melanic, concolorous with remainder of mesonotum Z. samensis

Species descriptions

Zosteragathis chaiyaphumensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Fore wing with a small infuscate area posterior to stigma. T2 entirely or almost entirely (80%) melanic. T2 as wide as long or wider.

Description

Body length 5.6 mm. Ovipositor length 3.7 mm. Ovipositor 0.7× body length. Number of flagellomeres 32. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 4 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 10 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter large, about same size as pedicel length. Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 0.9× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae converging anteromedially.

Color. head black except gena yellow; mesosoma black; fore and mid coxa black; T1 entirely black; anterior margin of T2 yellow.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Chaiyaphum Provence.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Chaiyaphum: Pa Hin Ngam NP, Mix deciduous forest, 15.578°N, 101.435°E, 419 m elev., Malaise trap, 19–25.v.2007 (H2442, T2601), Katae Sa-nog & Buakaw Adnafai. Paratype: Female: Thailand, Chiang Mai, Doi Chiangdao NP, Pha Tang substation, 19.416°N, 98.915°E, 526 m elev., Malaise trap, 3–9.v.2008 (H2434, T5802), S. Jugsu & A. Watwanich.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2DZycUy

Figure 2. 

Z. chaiyaphumensis: a) lateral habitus. b) wings. c) dorsal head. d) lateral head. e) lateral mesosoma. f) dorsal propodeum and T1-2. g) dorsal habitus.

Zosteragathis contrasta (Achterberg & Long)

Therophilus contrastus Achterberg & Long, 2010

Diagnosis

Head black; mesoscutum orange.

Description

Body length 5.2 mm. Ovipositor length 3.5 mm. Ovipositor 0.7× body length. Number of flagellomeres 34 (32–39). Sculpture of notauli slightly increasing in width posteriorly but not extending onto lateral lobes of mesoscutum. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 2 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 7 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter small, not much larger than width of pedicel. Wing hyaline, without distinct infuscate areas. T2 1× longer than wide. T2 mostly smooth with hints of longitudinal striae especially medially. Color: head black except lower gena yellow; pro and mesothorax orange except ventral mesopleuron melanic; metathorax and propodeum melanic; fore and mid coxae mostly yellow; apex of T1 and lateral and anterior margins of T2 yellow.

Material examined

Holotype: not examined. Paratypes: not examined. Non-type specimens: All female: Thailand: Hua Khakhaer 6, iii.1986 (H5908, H5998, H5999), M.G. Allen; Chaiyaphum, Pa Hin Ngam NP, Dry dipterocarp, 15.635°N, 101.399°E, 698 m elev., Malaise trap, 18–24.viii.2006 (H1855, T448), Katae Sa-nog & Buakaw Adnafai; Chaiyaphum, Pa Hin Ngam NP, Dry evergreen next to creek, 15.676°N, 101.445°E, 461 m elev., Malaise trap, 19–23.xii.2006 (H5916, T1353), Katae Sa-nog & Buakaw Adnafai; Chaiyaphum, Pa Hin Ngam NP, Mixed deciduous forest (Thepana waterfall), 15.649°N, 101.418°E, 614 m elev., Malaise trap, 13–19.x.2006 (H5918, T662), Katae Sa-nog & Buakaw Adnafai; Chaiyaphum, Tat Tone NP, Chaiyapoom forest fire station, 16.013°N, 102.021°E, 195 m elev., Malaise trap, 19–23.xii.2006 (H100, T1372), Tawit Jaruphan & Orawan Budsawong; Chaiyaphum, Tat Tone NP, beside Sapsomboon substation, 16.013°N, 101.975°E, 648 m elev., Malaise trap, 5–12.v.2007 (H437, T2569), Tawit Jaruphan & Orawan Budsawong; Chiang Mai, Doi Chiang Dao WS, Nature trail, 19.4046°N, 98.9218°E, 491 m elev., Malaise trap, 30.ix-7.x.2007 (H5539, T3174), Songkran & Apichart; Chiang Mai, Doi Chiangdao NP, Headquarter, 19.405°N, 98.922°E, 491 m elev., Malaise trap, 1–8.iv.2008 (H924, T5780), 8–15.iv.2008 (H5979, T5792), S. Jugsu & A. Watwanich; Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon NP, Vachirathan Falls, 18.539°N, 98.601°E, 700 m elev., Malaise trap, 21–27.ix.2006 (H5922, T341), 19–26.x.2006 (H017, T372), 17–24.xi.2006 (H094, T1861), 8–15.xii.2006 (H5913, T1933), 22–29.xii.2006 (H5923, T1935), Y. Areeluck; Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon NP, campground pond, 18.544°N, 98.525°E, 1200 m elev., Malaise trap, 15–22.vii.2006 (H5930, T68), 9–16.viii.2006 (H5917, T175), Y. Areeluck; Chiang Mai, Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden, 18.881°N, 98.862°E, 811 m elev., Malaise trap, 4–13.iii.2009 (H399), 20–27.iii.2009 (H385), 3–18.iv.2009 (H643), 8–30.iv.2009 (H688), 30.iv-12.v.2009 (H341), 19–26.v.2009 (H312), 9–16.vi.2009 (H695), 16–23.vi.2009 (H569, H570, H571), 23–30.vi.2009 (H566, H567, H568), 30.vi-10.vii.2009 (H520), K. Kaewjanta & R. Sawkord; Kanchanaburi, Khuean Srinagarindra NP, Tha Thung-na, Chong Kraborg, 14.5°N, 98.884°E, 210 m elev., Malaise trap, 26.ii–5.iii.2009 (H534, H536, T4779), 12–19.iii.2009 (H985, T4781), 19–26.iii.2009 (H2437, T4780), Boonnam & Phumarin; Lampang, Chae Son NP, Campground#3, 18.831°N, 99.471°E, 487 m elev., Malaise trap, 8–14.x.2007 (H4112, T5324), 21–28.x.2007 (H4100, H4105, T5313), B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng; Lampang, Chae Son NP, Hot spring, 18.835°N, 99.475°E, 493 m elev., Malaise trap, 1–8.xii.2007 (H5920, T2892), 14–21.xii.2007 (H5915, T2893), Boonruen & Acharapaun; Lampang, Chae Son NP, Nursery, 18.832°N, 99.469°E, 485 m elev., Malaise trap, 21–28.xi.2007 (H983), B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng; Lampang, Chae Son NP, Youthcamp, 18.8304°N, 99.4709°E, 455 m elev., Malaise trap, 15–21.iv.2008 (H5532, T5418), B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng; Lampang, Chae Son NP, beside office, 18.834°N, 99.473°E, 447 m elev., Malaise trap, 1–8.x.2007 (H5921, T2840), Bunruen Kwunnui & Acharaporn Sukpeng; Loei, Phu Kradueng NP, Mixed deciduous forest south of Na Noy Forest Unit, 16.818°N, 101.794°E, 275 m elev., Malaise trap, 14–20.xi.2006 (H104, T1074), Suthin Gong-lasae; Loei, Phu Kradueng NP, Mixed deciduous, N Na Noy office, 16.803°N, 101.795°E, 276 m elev., Malaise trap, 14–21.v.2008 (H601, T5007), 21–28.v.2008 (H2405, H2414, T5015), Thonghuay Phatai; Thailand, Loei, Phu Ruea NP, Reservior, 17.48°N, 101.356°E, 931 m elev., Malaise trap, 19–26.i.2007 (H101), Patikhom Tumtip; Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, E Huai Fai Kor reservoir, 19.344°N, 97.988°E, Malaise trap, 27.i–3.ii.2008 (H451, T3496), 6–13.iv.2007 (H936, T6033), 9–16.ix.2007 (H984, T5891), 14–21.x.2007 (H994, T5917), 28.x-4.xi.2007 (H982, T5924), 18–25.xi.2007 (H980, T5942), A. Kamkhun & M. Kaewmanee; Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, 19.36°N, 97.988°E, 228 m elev., Malaise trap, 30.iii-6.iv.2008 (H919, T6024), 4–11.v.2008 (H472, T3512), Manu Kaewmanee; Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, E Huai Fai Kor reservoir, 19.344°N, 97.988°E, Malaise trap, 3–10.ii.2008 (H616, T3497), 4–11.v.2008 (H327, T3516), A. Kamkoon; Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, Haad Saen, 19.348°N, 97.985°E, Malaise trap, 1–8.vi.2008 (H445, H446, H5976, T3527), 4–11.v.2008 (H311, T3508), J. Kaewmanee; Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, Nature trail, 19.344°N, 97.988°E, 334 m elev., Malaise trap, 30.ix–7.x.2007 (H2420, T5901), 7–14.x.2007 (H969, T5904), 21–28.x.2007 (H959, T5921), Areerat Kamkhun; Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, Visitor’s center, 19.36°N, 97.988°E, 228 m elev., Malaise trap, 11–18.xi.2007 (H976, T5930), Manu Namadkum; Nakhon Nayok, Khao Yai NP, Lum Ta Kong View Point, 14.426°N, 101.391°E, 726 m elev., Malaise trap, 12–19.iv.2007 (H5909, T2124), Wirat Sukho; Nakhon Nayok, Khao Yai NP, secondary forest near Hnong Pakchee, 14.453°N, 101.364°E, 758 m elev., Malaise trap, 5–12.v.2007 (H142), Pong Sandao; Petchaburi, Kaeng Krachan NP, Panernthung, km27, 12.822°N, 99.371°E, Malaise trap, 11–18.i.2009 (H651, T4401), Sirichai; Phetchabun, Khao Kho NP, Deciduous forest at Ta Pol river, 16.543°N, 101.041°E, 242 m elev., Malaise trap, 26.v-2.vi.2007 (H491, T2557), Somchai Chachumnan & Saink Singtong; Phetchabun, Khao Kho NP, Mixed deciduous forest, 16.542°N, 101.041°E, 524 m elev., Malaise trap, 5–12.xii.2006 (H143, H144, H149, T1179), 19–26.xii.2006 (H146, T1184), 26.xii.2006–2.i.2007 (H5919, T1189), Somchai Chachumnan & Saink Singtong; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, 30m N, protection unit4, 12.268°N, 99.944°E, 1 m elev., Malaise trap, 24–31.v.2009 (H489, T4833), Yai Amnad; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, Don Tone Sone beach, 12.122°N, 99.968°E, 1 m elev., Malaise trap, 10–17.v.2009 (H2784), Yai Amnad; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, Khao Look Glang, 12.107°N, 99.955°E, Malaise trap, 1–8.ii.2009 (H378, H387, H392, T4187), 2–9.xi.2008 (H429, T4124), 9–16.xi.2008 (H2417, T4125), 23–30.xi.2008 (H402, T4140), 7–14.xii.2008 (H382, H669, T4142), 8–15.ii.2009 (H629, T4188), Yai, Amnad; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, Laem Sala beach, 12.204°N, 100.013°E, Malaise trap, 20–27.vii.2008 (H5902, T3014), Yai & Amnad; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, Nursery, 12.126°N, 99.958°E, Malaise trap, 29.vi-6.vii.2008 (H5900, T3049), 6–13.vii.2008 (H5912, T3035), Pan trap, 2–3.vii.2008 (H5903, T3034), Amnad & Yai; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, Saline wetland, Pa Gwad, N, 12.153°N, 99.972°E, Malaise trap, 28.xii.2008–4.i.2009 (H317, T4169), 25.i-1.ii.2009 (H2426, T4190),Yai & Amnad; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, foot of Khao Taen, 12.146°N, 99.966°E, 1 m elev., Malaise trap, 10–17.v.2009 (H364, H2872, T4828), 17–24.v.2009 (H362, T4831), 24–31.v.2009 (H709, H711, T4834), Yai & Amnad; Sakon Nakhon, Phu Phan NP, Dry evergreen near house no. 1567, 16.81°N, 103.892°E, 512 m elev., Malaise trap, 16–22.vi.2007 (H1856), 22–28.vi.2007 (H5911, T2501), Winlon Kongnara; Suphanburi, Pu Toei NP, Huai Mongpae, red road, 14.95°N, 99.446°E, 300 m elev., Malaise trap, 24–31.vii.2008 (H5907, T3120); Suphanburi, Pu Toei NP, Phu Toei hill top, road, 14.955°N, 99.45°E, 650 m elev., Malaise trap, 24–31.vii.2008 (H5910, T3134), L. Saunbua; Suphanburi, Pu Toei NP, Pu Krathing waterfall, 14.815°N, 99.46°E, 200 m elev., Malaise trap, 21–28.v.2009 (H677), P. Wangkum; Surat Thani, Khao Sok NP, Headquarter, 8.915°N, 98.53°E, 115 m elev., Malaise trap, 31.viii-8.ix.2008 (H672, T3359), 17–24.iii.2009 (H603, H608, H609, H622, T4471), Buathong & Pongphan; Trang, Khaochong, 7.551°N, 99.789°E, 75 m elev., Malaise trap, 18–21.iii.2005 (H056); Vietnam, Dak Lak Prov., EASO National Park, 12.918°N, 108.633°E, Malaise trap, 18.iii.2009 (H7995).

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2q4eDp2

Distribution

Vietnam and Thailand.

Figure 3. 

Z. contrasta: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) anterior head. d) lateral head. e) lateral mesosoma. f) dorsal mesoscutellum. g) propodeum. h) T1-3.

Zosteragathis eukos Sharkey, sp. n.

Etymology

Eukos is Greek for milky white; here it is a reference to the color of the base of the hind tibia.

Diagnosis

T2 almost entirely melanic and longer than wide; fore wing lacking infuscate patch posterior to stigma; similar to Z. annuliferus (Achterberg and Long 2010) but dimensions of T1 and T2 differ.

Description

Body length 4.9 mm. Ovipositor length/body length ratio = 0.8. Interantennal space with a flat triangular elevation that narrows to a short ridge posteriorly and then divides into two short indistinct carinae that approach the median ocellus. Antenna with 32 flagellomeres. Third labial (penultimate) palpomere minute, barely visible and much smaller than apical palpomere. Scutellar groove with 3 longitudinal ridges. Fore tibia lacking thickened spines; mid tibia with 3 pegs; hind tibia with 10 pegs.

Specimens examined

Holotype female, THAILAND, Suphanburi, Pu Toei NP, car park, Pu Krathing waterfall, 14°48.922’N, 99°27.52’E, 200 m elev., Malaise trap, 21–28.iv.2009 (H689, T4610), Wangkum, leg.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2I4SQEY

Figure 4. 

Zosteragathis eukos holotype female. a) lateral habitus. b) wings. c) anterodorsal head. d) lateral head. e) lateral mesosoma. f) dorsal thorax. g) propodeum and metasomal terga 1-3.

Zosteragathis hinensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Mesoscutum black. Fore coxa mostly melanic. Hind femur melanic, brown to black. T2 mostly pale in anterior half and mostly melanic in posterior half. T2 as wide as long or wider.

Description

Body length 4.5 mm. Ovipositor length 3.6 mm. Ovipositor 0.8× body length.

Number of flagellomeres 31. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 2 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 6 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter large, about same size as pedicel length. Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 0.9× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae relative straight throughout.

Color. Head black; mesosoma black; fore and mid coxa black; posterior border of T1 yellow; T2 yellow in basal half.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Pa Hin Ngam National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Chaiyaphum, Pa Hin Ngam NP, Deciduous forest, 15.666°N, 101.453°E, 357 m elev., Malaise trap, 1–7.vi.2007 (H278, T2472), Katae Sa-nog & Buakaw Adnafai.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2E2Qcxq

Figure 5. 

Z. hinensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) dorsal head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum h) dorsal propodeum and T1–3.

Zosteragathis hongensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Head mostly black; mesoscutum orange; T1 mostly and T2 entirely white of pale whitish yellow.

Description

Body length 3.6 mm. Ovipositor length 2.8 mm. Ovipositor 0.8× body length. Number of flagellomeres 30. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 3 apical and 2 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 7 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter minute, about equal to width of pedicel. Wing hyaline, without distinct infuscate areas. T2 0.8× longer than wide. T2 mostly smooth with fine wrinkles, only a hint of longitudinal striae. Color: head black except lower gena and clypeus yellow; pronotum and mesonotum orange; propodeum, mesopleuron and metapleuron black; T1 and T2 mostly or entirely white or pale whitish yellow; anterior margin of T3 white or pale whitish yellow.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Mae Hong Song Provence.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, E Huai Fai Kor reservoir, 19.344°N, 97.988°E, 311 m elev., Malaise trap, 18–25.v.2008 (H660, T3518), Kamkoon, A. Paratype: Female: Thailand, Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, Visitor’s center, 19.3598°N, 97.9875°E, 228 m elev., Malaise trap, 20–27.iv.2008 (H3819, T6045), Areerat Kamkhun.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2E2QgNG

Figure 6. 

Z. hongensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) anterior head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum h) propodeum. i) T 1–5.

Zosteragathis inthanonensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Pronotum melanic dorsomedially, concolorous with lateral surfaces of pronotum.

Scutellum sculpture smooth with punctures.

Description

Body length 4.7 mm. Ovipositor length 3.7 mm. Ovipositor 0.8× body length. Number of flagellomeres 34. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 2 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 6 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter small, slightly larger than pedicel width (varying to minute and about the same size as width of pedicel). Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 1.1× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae relative straight throughout. Color: head black; mesosoma black; fore and mid coxa yellow; posterior border of T1 yellow; T2 yellow anteriorly and anterolaterally (varying to yellow in entire anterior half).

Etymology

Named after the type locality Doi Inthanon National park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Chiang Mai, Doi Inthanon NP, Kew Maepan Trail, 18.553°N, 98.48°E, 2200 m elev., Malaise trap, 22–29.iv.2007 (H080, T1847), Y. Areeluck.

Paratypes: All female: Thailand, Lampang, Chae Son NP, Behind youthcamp, 18.8308°N, 99.458°E, 445 m elev., Malaise trap, 14–21.ii.2008 (H3818, T5376), 7–14.ii.2008 (H5953, T5377), B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng; Lampang, Chae Son NP, Mae Paan unit, 18.8274°N, 99.4118°E, 815 m elev., Malaise trap, 21–27.v.2008 (H5515, T5290), B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng; Lampang, Chae Son NP, campground, lavatory, 18.832°N, 99.473°E, 467 m elev., Malaise trap, 21–30.v.2008 (H2440, T5305), B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2uqJOjH

Figure 7. 

Z. inthanonensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) dorsal head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum h) propodeum. i) T1–3.

Zosteragathis krachanensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Scutellar triangle rugose; T2 elongate (1.6× longer than wide); t2 entirely pale yellow.

Description

Body length 6.7 mm. Ovipositor length 6.4 mm. Ovipositor 1.0× body length. Number of flagellomeres broken after the 33rd flagellomere. Sculpture of notauli increasing in width posteriorly where it extends over onto lateral lobes of mesoscutum. Scutellum rugose. Mid tibia with 1 apical and 2 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 7 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter large, about as large as pedicel length. Wing hyaline with weak infuscation posterior to stigma. T2 2× longer than wide. T2 entirely and evenly striate, striae diverging anteriorly, otherwise approximately straight. Color: head and mesosoma melanic, except lower gena and clypeus yellow; fore and mid coxae yellow; T1 mostly pale yellow with a pair of large melanic spots; T2 entirely pale yellow.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Kaeng Krachan National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Petchaburi, Kaeng Krachan NP, Panernthung, km 27, 12.822°N, 99.371°E, 950 m elev., Malaise trap, 18–25.iii.2009 (H492, T4732), Sirichai & Prasit.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2utGnJc

Figure 8. 

Z. krachanensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) anterior head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum h) propodeum. i) T1–3.

Zosteragathis lampangensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Clypeus melanic. Mesoscutum black. Scutellum sculpture smooth with punctures. T2 entirely or almost entirely (80%) pale.

Description

Body length 4.2 mm. Ovipositor length 3.1 mm. Ovipositor 0.7× body length. Number of flagellomeres 29. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 4 apical and 4 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 9 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter minute, about equal to width of pedicel. Wing hyaline, without distinct infuscate areas. T2 1× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae relatively straight. Color: head black; mesosoma black; fore and mid coxa yellow; anterior and posterior borders of T1 yellow; T2 yellow; anterior margin of T3 yellow.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Lampang Provence.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Lampang, Chae Son NP, behind visitor center, 18.835°N, 99.474°E, 421 m elev., Malaise trap, 1–8.ix.2007 (H237, T2832), Bunruen Kwunnui & Acharaporn Sukpeng. Paratype: Female, Thailand, Petchaburi, Kaeng Krachan NP, Panernthung, km 27, 12.822°N, 99.371°E, 950 m elev., Malaise trap, 8–15.vi.2009 (H989, T5264), Sirichai.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2pK371W

Figure 9. 

Z. lampangensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) dorsal head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum h) propodeum and T1–3.

Zosteragathis lampooensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Subgenal groove poorly developed, shallow and narrow. Scutellum sculpture smooth with punctures. Mesoscutum black. Hind femur melanic. Fore wing not distinctly infuscate in apical half. T1 color mostly or entirely melanic (brown to black) in basal 1/5, sometimes extreme base pale. T2 distinctly longer than wide. Striae of T2 relatively straight. Exposed portion of ovipositor shorter than body length.

Description

Body length 4.6 mm. Ovipositor length 4.7 mm. Ovipositor 1.0× body length. Number of flagellomeres 31. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 3 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 10 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter minute, about equal to width of pedicel. Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 1.1× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae relative straight throughout.

Color. Head and mesosoma melanic, except tegula and lowermost extremity of gena yellow; fore coxa yellow; mid coxa mostly melanic; T1 mostly melanic except posterior margin pale yellow; T2 pale yellow anterior to transverse depression.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Nong Bua Lampoo Provence.

Material examined

Holotype: Female, Thailand, Nong Bua Lampoo, Phu Kao-Phu Phan Kham NP, far from the old house 100 m (east), 16.81°N, 102.614°E, 100 m elev., Malaise trap, 27.vii–2.viii.2006 (H122, T85), Rakkiat Singhatip. Paratypes: All female: Thailand, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Namtok Yong NP, TV aerial, 8.238°N, 99.805°E, 966 m elev., Malaise trap, 1–8.ix.2008 (H995, T3538), Paiboon; Phetchabun, Khao Kho NP, Mix deciduous forest, 16.542°N, 101.041°E, 524 m elev., Malaise trap, 26.vi-2.vii.2007 (H650, T2460), Somchai Chachumnan & Saink Singtong; Ubon Ratchathani, Pha Taem NP, Phu Krajeaw foothill, 15.6664°N, 105.5078°E, 238 m elev., Malaise trap, 2–9.vi.2007 (H1636, T2206), Tongcam & Banlu; Nong Bua Lampoo, Phu Kao-Phu Phan Kham NP, tank, 16.807°N, 102.615°E, 199 m elev., Malaise trap, 27.vii-2.viii.2006 (H121, T89), Rakkiat Singhatip.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2Gccq5J

Figure 10. 

Z. lampooensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) anterior head. d) lateral head. e) lateral mesosoma. f) dorsal mesoscutum. g) propodeum. h) T1–3.

Zosteragathis luangensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Ovipositor slightly more than 1/2 body length; scutellum rugose.

Description

Body length 4.0 mm. Ovipositor length 2.3 mm. Ovipositor 0.6× body length. Number of flagellomeres 30. Sculpture of notauli increasing in width posteriorly where it extends over onto lateral lobes of mesoscutum. Scutellum rugose. Mid tibia with 2 apical and 2 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 4 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter small, smaller than pedicel length, but larger than pedicel width. Wing hyaline with a weak infuscate area posterior to stigma. T2 1.2× longer than wide. T2 striate, striae straight and weak to absent anteriorly. Color: head black except lower gena and clypeus partly yellow; mesosoma black; fore and hind coxa melanic; T1 whitish yellow basally and apically; T2 whitish yellow in basal 1/2.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Thung Salaeng Luang National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female, Thailand, Phitsanulok, Thung Salaeng Luang NP, Moist evergreen forest, 16.844°N, 100.882°E, 557 m elev., Malaise trap, 25.viii-1.ix.2006 (H1859, T572), Pongpitak Pranee.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2pMnf3r

Figure 11. 

Z. luangensis: a) lateral habitus. b) anterior head. c) fore wing. d) hind wing. e) dorsal head and mesoscutum. f) lateral head and mesosoma. g) dorsal propodeum and T1–3.

Zosteragathis ngamensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Head, prothorax and mesothorax yellow; ovipositor short, about 1/2 body length; scutellar triangle rugose.

Description

Body length 4.1 mm. Ovipositor length 2.0 mm. Ovipositor 0.5× body length. Number of flagellomeres 34. Sculpture of notauli increasing in width posteriorly where it extends over onto lateral lobes of mesoscutum. Scutellum rugose. Mid tibia with no apical and 2 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 5 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter large, about as high as pedicel. Wing hyaline, apical half of wing weakly infuscate, as is area posterior to stigma (infuscate areas may not be evident unless lighting is optimal). T2 1.2× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae relative straight throughout. Color: head, prothorax and mesothorax yellow, metathorax and propodeum black; fore and mid coxae yellow; basal 1/3 and apical margin of T1 yellow; anterior 1/2 of T2 yellow.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Pa Hin Ngam National Park.

Specimens examined

Holotype: Female, Thailand, Chaiyaphum, Pa Hin Ngam NP, Mixed deciduous forest (Thepana waterfall), 15.6486°N, 101.4179°E, 614 m elev., Malaise trap, 7–13.x.2006, Katae Sa-nog & Buakaw Adnafai. (H1625, T659). Paratypes: Thailand: Female, Chaiyaphum, Pa Hin Ngam NP, Dry evergreen forest near stream, 15.676°N, 101.445°E, 461 m elev., Malaise trap, 19–20.vi.2007, Katae Sa-nog & Buakaw Adnafai, (H277, T2482). Female, Chaiyaphum, Pa Hin Ngam NP, Dry evergreen forest (Thepana waterfall), 15.648°N, 101.431°E, 605 m elev., Malaise trap, 19–25.x.2006, Katae Sa-nog & Buakaw Adnafai. (H291, T667).

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2Gc89iQ

Figure 12. 

Z. ngamensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) anterior head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) propodeum and T1–3.

Zosteragathis nuichuaensis (Achterberg & Long)

Therophilus nuichuaensis Achterberg & Long, 2010

Diagnosis

Scutellar triangle rugose.

Description

Body length 3.2 mm. Ovipositor length 2.7 mm. Ovipositor 0.8× body length. Number of flagellomeres (26–28 in Thai specimens) incomplete in holotype. Sculpture of notauli increasing in width posteriorly where it extends over onto lateral lobes of mesoscutum. Scutellum rugose. Mid tibia with 2 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 6 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter large, almost as large as pedicel length. Wing hyaline, without distinct infuscate areas. T2 0.9× longer than wide. T2 mostly smooth with striae indicated especially posteromedially (to entirely striate, with striae weaker medially), striae relatively straight. Color: head black except gena yellow ventrally; fore and mid coxae mostly melanic; apex of T1 and anterior half of T2 yellow.

Material examined

Holotype: not examined. Paratypes: not examined. Non-type specimens: All female: Thailand, Trang, Khoa Chong, Forest Research Stn., 7.551°N, 99.789°E, 75 m elev., xi.2005 (H083, T6372), viii.2005 (H065, T3595), D. Lohman; Trang, Khao Pu-Khao Ya NP, 7.551°N, 99.789°E, 75 m elev., Malaise trap, 7–12.vi.2006 (H288, T1968), 31.iii-3.iv.2006 (H239, T2049), M. Sharkey; Trang, Khao Pu-Khao Ya NP, 7.551°N, 99.789°E, 147 m elev., Malaise trap, 3–5.viii.2005 (H5901, T1762), M. Sharkey; Taiwan, Taipei Co., Wulai, 24.87°N, 121.55°E, Malaise trap, 15.vii-2003, L. Stange & H. Wang.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2pGpC8T

Figure 13. 

Z. nuichuaensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) dorsal head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) propodeum. i) T1–3.

Zosteragathis perknos Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Fore wing clear basally, infuscate in apical half; T2 much narrower basally than apically; close to Z. nigrolineatus (Achterberg & Long, 2010), but differing in the dimensions of T2.

Description

Body length 6.2 mm. Ovipositor length/body length ratio = 0.8. Interantennal space with a flat triangular elevation that narrows to a short ridge posteriorly and then divides into two short indistinct carinae that approach the median ocellus. Antenna with 35 flagellomeres. Third labial (penultimate) palpomere small, 1/3 as long as apical palpomere. Scutellar groove with 3 longitudinal ridg es. Fore tibia lacking thickened spines; mid tibia with 4 pegs; hind tibia with 8 pegs.

Etymology

Perknos is Greek for dusky; here it is a reference to the dark color of the base of the hind tibia.

Specimens examined

Holotype ♀, THAILAND, Chiang Mai, Doi Phahompok NP, Doi Phaluang, 20°1.06’N, 99°9.581’E, 1449 m elev., Malaise trap, 3–10.viii.2007 (H236, T2931), Wongchai, leg.

Paratypes: THAILAND: ♀, Petchaburi, Kaeng Krachan NP, Panernthung, km27, water pump, 12°49.151’N, 99°22.483’E, 970 m elev., Malaise trap, 17–24.x.2008 (H970, T4386), Sirichai leg. ♀, Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, visitor’s center, 19°21.593’N, 97°59.254’E, 228 m elev., Malaise trap, 26.viii-2.ix.2007 (H958, T5874), Manu Namadkum leg.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2GbdAP7

Figure 14. 

Zosteragathis perknos holotype female. a) lateral habitus. b) wings. c) dorsal head. d) lateral head. e) lateral mesosoma. f) dorsal thorax. g) propodeum and metasomal terga 1–3.

Zosteragathis petchaburiensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Ovipositor longer than body; T2 almost entirely black; fore and mid femur partly black; propodeum smooth along posterior margin.

Description

Body length 3.6 mm. Ovipositor length 3.8 mm. Ovipositor 1.0× body length. Number of flagellomeres 33. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 7 apical and 2 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 10 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter small, smaller than pedicel length, but larger than pedicel width. Wing mostly hyaline, weakly infuscate in distal half, not distinctly infuscate posterior to stigma. T2 1.2× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae converging somewhat posteromedially. Color: head black; mesosoma black; mid and fore coxa black; fore femur partly black; mid femur mostly black; T1 entirely black; T2 mostly black except anterior and anterolateral margins yellow.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Petchaburi Provence.

Specimens examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Petchaburi, Kaeng Krachan NP, Panernthung km 27, 12.822°N, 99.371°E, 950 m elev., Malaise trap, 4–11.i.2009 (H473, T4402), Sirichai.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2umu41q

Figure 15. 

Zosteragathis petchaburiensis: a) T1–3. b) lateral head and mesosoma. c) fore wing. d) hind wing. e) lateral metasoma. f) anterior head. g) dorsal head and mesoscutum. h) dorsal mesosoma. i) lateral head and mesosoma.

Zosteragathis phahompokensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Scutellum smooth with punctures. T1 mostly or entirely pale in basal 1/5 or more. T2 mostly pale in anterior half and mostly melanic in posterior half.

Description

Body length 4.1 mm. Ovipositor length 3.2 mm. Ovipositor 0.8× body length. Number of flagellomeres 31. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 2 apical and 4 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 7 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter large, about same size as pedicel length (to 1/3 length of pedicel but always wider than pedicel). Wing hyaline, without distinct infuscate areas. T2 0.9× longer than wide. T2 mostly smooth with short longitudinal carinae restricted to area near median transverse depression. Color: head black except ventral gena and ventral clypeus yellow; mesosoma black; fore and mid coxa yellow; T1 yellow with large black patch posteromedially; T2 yellow in anterior half.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Doi Phahompokensis National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Chiang Mai, Doi Phahompok NP, Headquarter, 19.966°N, 99.156°E, 569 m elev., Malaise trap, 28.ii-7.iii.2008 (H1858, T2939), Seesom, K. Paratype: Female: Thailand, Sakon Nakhon, Phu Phan NP, Behind national park office, 17.058°N, 103.975°E, 318 m elev., Malaise trap, 23–30.i.2007 (H097, T1527), Sailom Tongboonchai.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2pIAjaK

Figure 16. 

Z. phahompokensis: a) anterior head. b) lateral habitus. c) fore wing. d) hind wing. e) dorsal head and mesoscutum. f) lateral head and mesosoma. g) propodeum. g) propodeum. h) T1–3.

Zosteragathis phuphanensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mesoscutum black. Fore wing with a small infuscate area posterior to stigma. T2 distinctly longer than wide. Striae of T2 curving towards the midline, especially anteromedially.

Description

Body length 4.7. Ovipositor length 4.8. Ovipositor 1.0× body length. Number of flagellomeres 32. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 2–3 apical and 4 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 8 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter small, smaller than pedicel length, but larger than pedicel width. Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 1.1× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae converging medially.

Color. Head black except ventral extremity of gena yellow; mesosoma black; fore and mid coxa yellow; posterior margin of T1 yellow; T2 yellow anteriorly and anterolaterally.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Phu Phan National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Sakon Nakhon, Phu Phan NP, Dry evergreen near house no.1567, 16.81°N, 103.892°E, 512 m elev., Malaise trap, 4–10.vi.2007 (H280, T1567), Winlon Kongnara. Paratype: Female, Thailand, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Namtok Yong NP, Behind campground lavatory, 8.174°N, 99.742°E, 80 m elev., Malaise trap, 29.x-5.xi.2008 (H550, T4253), U-prai;K.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2DYkTUg

Figure 17. 

Z. phuphanensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) dorsal head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) propodeum. i) T1–3.

Zosteragathis sakaeratensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Fore wing without a small infuscate area posterior to stigma. T2 entirely or almost entirely (80%) melanic. T2 as wide as long or wider.

Description

Body length 4.2 mm. Ovipositor length 2.8 mm. Ovipositor 0.7× body length. Number of flagellomeres 29. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 3 apical and 1 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 9 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter small, slightly smaller than pedicel length. Wing hyaline with a slight infuscation posterior to stigma. T2 0.8× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae relative straight throughout. Color: fore coxa melanic; mid coxa yellow; hind femur yellowish brown; T1 and T2 mostly melanic; posterior margin of T1 pale; T2 with some pale infusions medially and anterolaterally.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Sakaerat Experimental Station.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima, 60 km S, Sakaeret Expt. Stn., 14.5°N, 101.917°E, 450 m elev., Malaise trap, 2–4.iii.1971 (H238), P&P Spangler.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2Gvhsd0

Figure 18. 

Z. sakaeratensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) dorsal head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) propodeum and T1–3.

Zosteragathis sakonensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Head black except clypeus and lower gena yellow, T1 and T2 predominantly pale yellow, T1 with a large melanic spot in basal half, T2 with (or without) melanic infusion posteromedially; second submarginal cell minute pedicel much longer than cell height, diameter about equal to width of pedicel.

Description

Body length 3.6 mm. Ovipositor length 3.0 mm. Ovipositor 0.8× body length. Number of flagellomeres 29. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 2 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 6 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter minute, about equal to width of vein. Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 weakly striate, striae almost absent anteromedially, weakly converging in posterior half. Color: head black except clypeus and lower gena yellow; mesosoma black; fore and mid coxae yellow; T1 and T2 predominantly pale yellow, T1 with a large melanic spot in basal half, T2 with melanic infusion posteromedially.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Sakon Nakhon Provence.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Sakon Nakhon, Phu Phan NP, Behind forest protection unit at Huay Wien Prai, 17.114°N, 104.005°E, 318 m elev., Malaise trap, 17–25.ii.2007 (H091, T1690), Sailom Tongboonchai. Paratypes: All female: Thailand, Surat Thani, Khao Sok NP, Headquarter, 8.9149°N, 98.5301°E, 115 m elev., Malaise trap, 2–9.xii.2008 (H3805, T3870), Pongphan; Phetchabun, Khao Kho NP, Mixed deciduous forest, 16.543°N, 101.041°E, 537 m elev., Malaise trap, 5–12.xii.2006 (H148, T1178), Somchai Chachumnan & Saink Singtong.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2Gg3UTu

Figure 19. 

Z. sakonensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) dorsal head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) propodeum. i) T1–3.

Zosteragathis samensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Fore coxa yellow. Hind femur black. T2 mostly pale in anterior half and mostly melanic in posterior half. Scutellum sculpture smooth with punctures. T2 dimensions as wide as long or wider.

Description

Body length 5.4 mm. Ovipositor length 3.3 mm. Ovipositor 0.6× body length. Number of flagellomeres 31. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 3 apical and 2 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 8 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter small, smaller than pedicel length, but larger than pedicel width. Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 0.9× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae weak anteromedially where they converge medially. Color: head black except gena yellow; mesosoma black; fore and mid coxa yellow; posterior margin of T1 yellow; anterior half of T2 yellow.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, Khao Look Glang, 12.107°N, 99.955°E, 20 m elev., Malaise trap, 8–15.iii.2009 (H2418, T4214), Yai Amnad. Paratypes: All female: Thailand, Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, foot of Khao Taen, 12.146°N, 99.966°E, 1 m elev., Malaise trap, 3–10.v.2009 (H638, H968, T4825), Yai Amnad; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, 30m N, protection unit4, 12.268°N, 99.944°E, 1 m elev., Malaise trap, 3–10.v.2009 (H973, T4824) 24–31.v.2009 (H490, T4833), Yai Amnad; Lampang, Chae Son NP, Youthcamp, 18.83°N, 99.471°E, 455 m elev., Malaise trap, 1–7.iv.2008 (H901, T5421), B. Kwannui & A. Sukpeng; Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, Haad Saen, 19.348°N, 97.985°E, 257 m elev., Malaise trap, 27.iv-4.v.2008 (H481, T3507), Na-maadkam, M; Prachuab Khiri Khan, Khao Sam Roi Yot NP, Saline wetland, Pa Gwad, N, 12.153°N, 99.972°E, 1 m elev., Malaise trap, 15–22.iii.2009 (H670, T4216), Yai Amnad.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2IZCper

Figure 20. 

Z. samensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) anterior head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) propodeum and T1–3.

Zosteragathis surinensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Hind femur yellow, hind coxa mostly yellow; hind tibia with many spines (9 or more).

Description

Body length 3.6 mm. Ovipositor length 3.4 mm. Ovipositor 1.0× body length. Number of flagellomeres 29. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 3 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 11 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter large, larger than length of pedicel. Wing hyaline, without distinct infuscate areas. T2 1.2× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae weak anteromedially, striae relatively straight. Color: head black except gena ventrally and clypeus yellow; mesosoma melanic; fore and mid coxae yellow; hind coxa yellow in apical half; hind femur yellow; apex of T1 yellow; T2 yellow in basal half.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Namtok Mae Surin National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Mae Hong Son, Namtok Mae Surin NP, E Huai Fai Kor reservoir, 19.344°N, 97.988°E, 311 m elev., Malaise trap, 18–25.v.2008 (H598, T3518), Kamkoon, A.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2IYZA91

Figure 21. 

Z. surinensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) anterior head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) propodeum and T1–3.

Zosteragathis taemensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Fore and mid coxae mostly melanic; scutellar groove pale; area posterior to fore wing stigma distinctly infuscate.

Description

Body length 6.1 mm. Ovipositor length 5.3 mm. Ovipositor 0.9× body length. Number of flagellomeres 34. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 4 apical and 4 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 9 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter minute, about equal to width of vein. Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 0.9× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, semicircular pattern anteromedially, striae converging posterior to this pattern. Color: head black except ventral gena and ventral clypeus yellow; mesosoma black except scutellar groove pale; fore and mid coxae predominantly melanic; T1 black except posterior margin yellow; T2 yellow in anterior half.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Pha Taem National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Ubon Ratchathani, Pha Taem NP, Phu Krajeaw foothill, 15.666°N, 105.508°E, 238 m elev., Malaise trap, 2–9.vi.2007 (H279, T2206), Tongcam & Banlu.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2uq1wnv

Figure 22. 

Z. taemensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) dorsal head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) propodeum and T1–3.

Zosteragathis tonensis Sharkey, sp. n.

Diagnosis

Ovipositor longer than body.

Description

Body length 4.5 mm. Ovipositor length 5.2 mm. Ovipositor 1.2× body length. Number of flagellomeres 31. Notauli sculpture not significantly wider posteriorly. Scutellum smooth with punctures. Mid tibia with 3 apical and 3 preapical spines. Hind tibia with 7 spines/pegs. Second submarginal cell diameter small, smaller than pedicel length, but larger than pedicel width. Wing hyaline with an infuscate patch posterior to stigma. T2 1.1× longer than wide. T2 entirely striate, striae relatively straight. Color: head black except ventral gena yellow; mesosoma black; fore and hind coxa black; posterior margin of T1 yellow; T2 mostly yellow in basal half with melanic tones posteromedially.

Etymology

Named after the type locality Tat Tone National Park.

Material examined

Holotype: Female: Thailand, Chaiyaphum, Tat Tone NP, Near stream, 15.98°N, 102.04°E, 305 m elev., Malaise trap, 12–19.vii.2006 (H016, T220), T. Jaruphan & O. Budsawong.

For a map of examined material, see: https://bit.ly/2IW47ZC

Figure 23. 

Z. tonensis: a) lateral habitus. b) fore wing. c) hind wing. d) anterior head. e) lateral head. f) lateral mesosoma. g) dorsal mesoscutum. h) scutellum and propodeum. i) T1–3.

Acknowledgements

We thank the staff at Queen Sirikit Botanic Garden in Chaing Mai, Thailand for sorting the many hundreds of samples and for the Thai park staff for operating Malaise traps and other collection devices. A special thanks to Chaweewan Hutacharern for managing the Thai end of the TIGER project. Special thanks also to Kees van Achterberg for lending specimens and types from Vietnam. Funding was provided by NSF grants DEB-0542864 and EF-0337220 and by Hatch projects KY008041 and KY008065 (to MJS). The information reported in this paper (No. 18-08-052) is part of a project of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with the approval of the Director. Many thanks to Drs Jim Whitfield and Donald Quicke who reviewed the manuscript.

References

  • Achterberg C van, Long KD (2010) Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) of Vietnam, with the description of forty-two new species and three new genera. ZooKeys 54: 1–184. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.54.475
  • Drummon AJ, Ashton B, Cheung M, Heled J, Kearse M, Moir R, Stones-Havas S, Thierer T, Wilson A (2009) Geneious version 6.1.5. http://www.geneious.com [accessed 1 April 2015]
  • Gries C, Gilbert EE, Franz NM (2014) Symbiota – A virtual platform for creating voucher-based biodiversity information communities. Biodiversity Data Journal 2014(2): e1114. https://doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.2.e1114
  • Huelsenbeck JP, Rannala B (2004) Frequentist properties of Bayesian posterior probabilities of phylogenetic trees under simple and complex substitution models. Systematic Biology 53: 904–913. https://doi.org/10.1080/10635150490522629
  • Sharkey MJ, Chapman EG (2017b) Phylogeny of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with a revised tribal classification and the description of a new genus. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 119 (Special Issue): 823–842. https://doi.org/10.4289/0013-8797.119.SpecialIssue.823
  • Sharkey MJ, Clutts SA (2011) A revision of Thai Agathidinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), with descriptions of six new species. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 22: 69–132. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.22.1299
  • Sharkey MJ, Clutts SA, Tucker EM, Janzen DH, Hallwachs W, Dapkey T, Smith MA (2011a) Lytopylus Forster (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae) species from Costa Rica, with an emphasis on specimens reared from caterpillars in Area de Conservación Guanacaste. Zookeys 130: 379–419. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.130.1569
  • Sharkey MJ, Parys KA, Clutts SA (2011b) A new genus of Agathidinae with the description of a new species parasitic on Samea multiplicalis (Guenee). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 23: 43–53. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.23.1100
  • Sharkey MJ, Laurenne NM, Sharanowski BJ, Quicke DLJ, Murray D (2006) Revision of the Agathidinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) with comparisons of static and dynamic alignments. Cladistics 22: 546–567. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.2006.00121.x
  • Sharkey MJ, Stoelb SAC (2012) Revision of Therophilus s.s. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae) from Thailand. Journal of Hymenoptera Research 27: 1–36. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.27.2832
  • Sharkey MJ, Stoelb SAC (2013) Revision of Agathacrista new genus (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae, Agathidini). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 33: 99–112. https://doi.org/10.3897/jhr.33.4373
  • Sharkey MJ, Wharton RA (1997) Morphology and terminology. Manual of the New World genera of Braconidae (Hymenoptera). In: Wharton RA, Marsh PM, Sharkey MJ (Еds) Special Publication of the International Society of Hymenopterists. Vol. 1. International Society of Hymenopterists, Washington DC, 19–38.
  • Watanabe C (1970) Notes on Braconid parasites of Lepidopterous leaf-rollers with descriptions of two new species (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Mushi 43: 121–126.
  • Yu DS, Achterberg C van, Horstmann K (2012) World Ichneumonoidea 2012. Taxonomy, biology, morphology and distribution [Ichneumonidae]. Taxapad 2012 (Scientific names for information management) Interactive catalogue, Vancouver, Canada. [Flash drive]
  • Zwickl DJ (2006) Genetic algorithm approaches for the phylogenetic analysis of large biological sequence datasets under the maximum likelihood criterion. PhD dissertation: The University of Texas at Austin. https://code.google.com/archive/p/garli/ [accessed 1 April 2015]

Appendix 1

Specimens used in the phylogenetic analyses, including specimen numbers, and GenBank and BOLD accession numbers and rough geographical information.

Taxon name Number Country: Region Type status COI 28S
Aerophilus abdominalis H1313 USA: KY ATRMK294-11 KP943685
Aerophilus malus H1484 USA: WV holotype ATRMK309-11 KP943693
Aerophilus rayfisheri H1212 USA: KY holotype ATRMK278-11 KP943675
Agathacrista depressifera H002 Thailand: Phetchabun KP943596 KC556782
Agathacrista krataei H268 Thailand: Kalasin holotype KP943614 KC556781
Agathacrista sailomi H013 Thailand: Chiang Mai holotype KX431796 KC556780
Agathacrista winloni H502 Thailand: Phetchabun holotype ATRMK218-11 KC771135
Agathigma templei H415 Thailand: Kamphaeng holotype ATRMK211-11 KX431753
Alabagrus maculipes H6020 Mexico: Jalisco ATRMK370-11 KP943698
Asperagathis aspera H274 Thailand: Phetchabun holotype KX431797 KX431706
Asperagathis xesta H095 Thailand: Chaiyaphum holotype KX431798 KX431707
Bassus albifasciatus H014 Thailand: Sakon Nakhon KX431714
Bassus albifasciatus H027 Thailand: Trang KX431800 KX431716
Bassus albifasciatus H032 Thailand: Trang KX431799 KX431715
Bassus albifasciatus H085 Thailand: Trang KX431801 KX431719
Bassus albifasciatus H343 Thailand: Chiang Mai KX431718
Bassus albifasciatus H377 Thailand: Nakhon Si Thammarat KX431717
Bassus alboapicalis H021 Thailand: Trang paratype KX431821 KX431767
Bassus alboapicalis H022 Thailand: Trang paratype KX431819 KX431764
Bassus alboapicalis H081 Thailand: Trang paratype KX431817 KX431762
Bassus alboapicalis H269 Thailand: Trang holotype KX431820 KX431766
Bassus alboapicalis H270 Thailand: Trang paratype KX431818 KX431763
Bassus alboapicalis H307 Thailand: Surat Thani paratype ATRMK195-11 KX431765
Bassus alboapicalis H410 Thailand: Nakhon Si Thammarat paratype KX431761
Bassus albobasalis H003 Thailand: Phetchabun KX431802 KX431721
Bassus albobasalis H092 Thailand: Trang KX431720
Bassus albobasalis H328 Thailand: Phetchabun JQ763436 KX431722
Bassus albocyclus H308 Thailand: Phetchabun paratype KX431724
Bassus albocyclus H349 Thailand: Chiang Mai paratype KX431725
Bassus albocyclus H636 Thailand: Suphan Buri holotype ATRMK230-11 KX431723
Bassus calculator H8008 Sweden: Stockholms län KX431712
Bassus mediatratus H015 Thailand: Chiang Mai holotype KX431816 KX431760
Bassus nopachoni H577 Thailand: Kamphaeng holotype ATRMK223-11 KX431713
Bassus pallidus H055 Thailand: Chanthaburi holotype KX431710
Bassus sp. H376 Thailand: Phetchaburi ATRMK204-11 KX431711
Braunsia smithii H906 Thailand: Chiang Mai ATRMK261-11 HQ667949
Camptothlipsis lingualongis H1887 South Africa: Western Cape paratype ATRMK334-11 JN564494
Camptothlipsis nigra H433 Thailand: Prachuap Khiri Khan ATRMK430-11 HQ667951
Camptothlipsis sheilae H664 Thailand: Kanchanaburi holotype ATRMK235-11 HQ667954
Camptothlipsis sp H162 Uganda: Homa Bay KX431699
Camptothlipsis sp H2299 Congo: Pool KX431698
Chimaeragathis chrysoma H710 Thailand: Phetchaburi holotype ATRMK240-11 KX431738
Chimaeragathis eurysoma H045 Thailand: Trang paratype KX431805 KX431736
Chimaeragathis eurysoma H069 Thailand: Trang paratype KX431806 KX431737
Chimaeragathis eurysoma H925 Thailand: Phetchaburi holotype ATRMK265-11 KX431735
Chimaeragathis lohmani H072 Thailand: Trang holotype KX431807 KX431739
Chimaeragathis lohmani H077 Thailand: Trang paratype KX431808 KX431740
Cymagathis krikoma H290 Thailand: Chaiyaphum paratype ATRMK192-11 KX431701
Gyragathis leucosoma H275 Thailand: Nakhon Ratchasima holotype KX431794 KX431700
Leuroagathis paulbakeri H369 Thailand: Prachuap Khiri Khan holotype KX431709
Liragathis baonai H360 Thailand: Nakhon Si Thammarat holotype ATRMK200-11 KX431705
Liragathis damnai H397 Thailand: Chiang Mai paratype ATRMK210-11 KX431704
Liragathis javana H283 Thailand: Trang KX431795 KX431702
Liragathis javana H628 Thailand: Phetchabun ATRMK228-11 KX431703
Neothlipsis sp. H195 Thailand: Surat Thani KP943607 KP943660
Neothlipsis sp. H198 USA: KY KX431793 KX431697
Neothlipsis sp. H7618 Mexico: Yucatan ATRMK403-11 KP943709
Neothlipsis parysae H4428 USA: KY paratype ATRMK364-11 KX431696
Scabagathis emilynadeauae H033 Thailand: Trang holotype KX431792 KX431695
Trochantagathis marshi H067 Thailand: Trang KX431809 KX431742
Trochantagathis marshi H089 Thailand: Trang KX431811 KX431745
Trochantagathis marshi H1851 Thailand: Trang KX431744
Trochantagathis marshi H281 Thailand: Trang KX431810 KX431743
Trochantagathis marshi H765 Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani ATRMK242-11 KX431741
Trochantagathis marshi H799 Thailand: Suphan Buri KX431746
Trochantagathis marshi H965 Thailand: Nakhon Si Thammarat ATRMK266-11 KX431747
Xanthagathis mellisoma H060 Thailand: Trang KX431812 KX431749
Xanthagathis mellisoma H145 Thailand: Phetchabun KX431748
Xanthagathis mellisoma H286 Thailand: Chaiyaphum ATRMK191-11 KX431751
Xanthagathis mellisoma H348 Thailand: Chiang Mai ATRMK199-11 KX431750
Xanthagathis mellisoma H662 Thailand: Phetchaburi ATRMK234-11 KX431752
Zosteragathis contrasta H017 Thailand: Chiang Mai KX431828 KX431783
Zosteragathis contrasta H056 Thailand: Trang KX431834 KX431790
Zosteragathis contrasta H094 Thailand: Chiang Mai KX431833 KX431789
Zosteragathis contrasta H100 Thailand: Chaiyaphum KX431832 KX431787
Zosteragathis contrasta H101 Thailand: Loei KX431827 KX431781
Zosteragathis contrasta H104 Thailand: Loei KX431782
Zosteragathis contrasta H142 Thailand: Nakhon Ratchasima KX431779
Zosteragathis contrasta H143 Thailand: Phetchabun KX431829 KX431784
Zosteragathis contrasta H144 Thailand: Phetchabun KX431830 KX431785
Zosteragathis contrasta H146 Thailand: Phetchabun KX431831 KX431786
Zosteragathis contrasta H149 Thailand: Phetchabun KX431826 KX431780
Zosteragathis contrasta H1855 Thailand: Chaiyaphum ATRMK501-11
Zosteragathis contrasta H603 Thailand: Surat Thani ATRMK226-11 KX431791
Zosteragathis contrasta H677 Thailand: Suphan Buri KX431788
Zosteragathis contrastus H985 Thailand: Kanchanaburi KX431778
Zosteragathis eukos H689 Thailand: Suphan Buri holotype ATRMK238-11 KX431755
Zosteragathis hongensis H660 Thailand: Mae Hong Son holotype ATRMK233-11 KX431727
Zosteragathis inthanonensis H080 Thailand: Chiang Mai holotype KX431814 KX431757
Zosteragathis krachanensis H492 Thailand: Phetchaburi holotype ATRMK217-11 KX431728
Zosteragathis lampangensis H237 Thailand: Lampang holotype KX431815 KX431758
Zosteragathis lampangensis H989 Thailand: Phetchaburi paratype ATRMK271-11 KX431759
Zosteragathis lampooensis H121 Thailand: Nong Bua Lam Phu paratype KX431822 KX431771
Zosteragathis lampooensis H122 Thailand: Nong Bua Lam Phu holotype KX431823 KX431772
Zosteragathis lampooensis H650 Thailand: Phetchabun paratype ATRMK232-11 KX431769
Zosteragathis lampooensis H1636 Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani paratype ATRMK325-11 KX431770
Zosteragathis luangensis H1859 Thailand: Phitsanulok holotype ATRMK329-11 KX431729
Zosteragathis ngamensis H1625 Thailand: Chaiyaphum holotype ATRMK323-11 KX431754
Zosteragathis nuichuaensis H065 Thailand: Trang KX431803 KX431733
Zosteragathis nuichuaensis H083 Thailand: Trang KX431804 KX431734
Zosteragathis nuichuaensis H239 Thailand: Trang KX431732
Zosteragathis petchaburiensis H473 Thailand: Phetchaburi holotype ATRMK216-11 KX431708
Zosteragathis phahompokensis H1858 Thailand: Chiang Mai holotype ATRMK328-11 KX431777
Zosteragathis sakonensis H091 Thailand: Sakon Nakhon holotype KX443589 KX431726
Zosteragathis samensis H2418 Thailand: Prachuap Khiri Khan holotype ATRMK475-11 KX431775
Zosteragathis samensis H973 Thailand: Prachuap Khiri Khan paratype ATRMK269-11 KX431774
Zosteragathis surinensis H598 Thailand: Mae Hong Son holotype ATRMK225-11 KX431768
Zosteragathis taemensis H279 Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani holotype KX431824 KX431773
Zosteragathis tonensis H016 Thailand: Chaiyaphum holotype KX431825 KX431776
Zosteragathis sp. n. 1 H687 Thailand: Nakhon Si Thammarat KX431730
Zosteragathis sp. n. 2 H1860 Thailand: Surat Thani ATRMK330-11 KX431731