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Type catalogue of the thick-headed flies (Diptera, Conopidae) in the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin
expand article infoJens-Hermann Stuke, Joachim Ziegler§
‡ Unaffilaited, Leer, Germany
§ Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany
Open Access

Abstract

Type material of thick-headed flies (Diptera, Conopidae) in the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (ZMHB) is documented. The entire collection holds primary type material (i.e. holotypes, lectotypes, syntypes) of 73 species. Five Conops species with previously unknown subgenus belong to the subgenus Asiconops: C. frontosus Kröber, 1916; C. indicus Kröber, 1916; C. maculiventris Kröber, 1916; C. nigrofasciatus Kröber, 1916; and C. punctifrons Kröber 1916. Two new synonyms are introduced: Conops vaginalis Rondani, 1865 syn. nov. of Conops truncatus Loew, 1847 and Siniconops fuscatus Qiao & Chao, 1998 syn. nov. of Physocephala sepulchralis Brunetti, 1912.

Key Words

Asiconops, Conops, new synonym, new subgenus position, Physocephala, Siniconops

Introduction

The recently published catalogue of Conopidae lists the depositories of primary type material based on published information (Stuke 2017). This present paper presents a revised catalogue of the type material of Conopidae deposited in the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science, Berlin, Germany (ZMHB).

Due to impressive historical and recent research in Diptera at the museum, several dipterists have added type material to the collection, including Hermann Loew (1807–1879; 10 species), Theodor Becker (1840–1928; 10 species); Anton Ferdinand Franz Karsch (1853–1936; 2 species), Oswald Duda (1869–1941; 1 species), Otto Kröber (1882–1969; 41 species and 2 lost species) and Jens-Hermann Stuke (1967; 9 species).

The Berlin collection is one of the most important for Conopidae worldwide, containing primary type material of some 73 species. Only the Natural History Museum (London; formerly the British Museum, Natural History) and the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institute) (Washington, DC) hold more type material.

Methods

The original labels are listed as citations. The labels are listed and numbered in the order found, commencing with the uppermost. Line breaks on labels are indicated by a slash (“ / “), but if there are “/” signs on the labels themselves, these are included without spaces before and after. If text on labels could not be identified properly the line is marked by “[?]”. The interpretation of cited locations is given in Table 1. The following acronyms are used for collections mentioned in the text:

MNHN Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (Paris, France)

NHML Natural History Museum (London, UK)

NMW Naturhistorisches Museum (Vienna, Austria)

SDEI Senckenberg Deutsches Entomologisches Institut (Müncheberg, Germany)

USNM Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History; formerly, United States National Museum (Washington DC, USA)

ZMHB Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institute for Evolution and Biodiversity Science (Berlin, Germany)

ZMUC University of Copenhagen, Zoological Museum (Copenhagen, Denmark)

Historical locations on labels mentioned in the text and their modern interpretation.

Adeleide Adelaide [Australia, South Australia]
Alai Geb. Alay Mountains [Kyrgyzstan & Tajikistan]
Altenbg. Altenburg [Germany, Thuringia]
Amboin. Amboina [Indonesia, Maluku Islands]
Argentinien / Prov. Buenos Aires Buenos Aires Province [Argentinia]
Asia minor / Taurus cilic. Central Taurus Mountains [Turkey]
Assam Assam [India]
Astrabad Gorgan [Iran, Golestan Province]
Asuncion, / Paraguay Asunción [Paraguay]
Asuncion, / Paraguy / Villa Morra Villa Morra, neighborhood of Asunción [Paraguay]
Bampur Bampur, town and river [Iran, Sistan and Baluchestan Province]
Basman Bazman, town and mountain [Iran, Sistan and Baluchestan Province]
Berlin Berlin [Germany]
Betschmanaland-Prot. / Kalahari / Severelela - Kooa between ‟Severelela” and ‟Kooa” in the Kalahari Desert [Botswana]
Bozen Bolzano [Italy, South Tyrol]
Brusa Bursa [Turkey, Bursa Province]
Carolina North- and South Carolina [USA]
Costa Rica / S. Jose San José [Costa Rica]
Dalmat. Dalmatia [Croatia]
Dech-i-Papid (=Дэх-и-Пабид) Deh-e Pabid, village NW Eskelabad 28°37’N 60°47’E [Iran, Sistan and Baluchestan Province]
Dus-ab (=Дузъ-абъ) Zahedan town [Iran, Sistan and Baluchestan Province]
Georgia Georgia [USA]
Graecia [Greece]
Hungria [Hungaria]
Kala-i-bid (=Кала-и Бидъ) Qal’eh-ye Bid, village, 28°39’N 60°22’E [Iran, Sistan and Baluchestan Province]
Kärnten / s. Mauthen Mauthen [Austria, Carinthia]
Kirman (=Кирманъ, = Кирм.) Kerman Province, in historical borders [Iran]
Kriviput Krivi Put [Croatia]
Ku-i-Murgak (=Ку-и-Мургакъ) Kuh-e Murgak mountain E of Bazman, 28°00’N 60°20’E [Iran, Sistan and Baluchestan Province]
Kyusyu / Mt. Kujyu / Oita Pref. Mount Kujū [Japan, Kyushu Island]
Lindi, Ostafrika Lindi [Tanzania, Lindi Region]
Mattogrosso [Brasil, Mato Grosso]
Mersina Mersin [Turkey, Province Mersin]
Morea mer., Tayget. Taygetos Mountains [Greece, southern Peleponnes]
N-Argentinien / Salta 2500 m Salta [Argentinia, Salta Province]
NE-Kreta, oberhalb / Chersónnissos Chersónnissos [Greece, Crete]
Nimptsch / Schles. Niemcza [Poland, Lower Silesian Province]
Nov.Holl. Nova Hollandia [Australia]
NW.-D: Döttlingen / [Oldenburg] Döttlingen [Germany, Lower Saxony]
Nyassa-See / Langenburg Lumbila town at Lake Nyasa [Tanzania, Ludewa District]
Ober. Aeg Upper Egypt [Egypt]
Ost-Afrika / Lindi Lindi [Tanzania, Lindi Region]
Paraguay / San Bernardino San Bernardino [Paraguay, Dep. Cordillera]
Pt. Phil. Port Phillipp [Australia, Victoria]
Pungo Andongo Pungo-Andongo [Angola, Province of Malanje]
Ragusa Ragusa [Italy, Sicily]
Reinerz Duszniki-Zdrój [Poland, Lower Silesian Province]
Riesengeb. Riesengebirge = Krkonoše Mountains [Czech Republic & Poland]
San João / d. Rey São João del Rei [Brazil, Southeast]
Sansibar / 6°S Zanzibar at 6°S [Tanzania]
Sarepta Sarepta = Volgograd [Russia, Volgograd Oblast]
Schwegyin Shwegyin [Myanmar, Bago Region]
S.Cruz Santa Cruz de Tenerife [Spain, Canary Islands]
Sikhim Sikhim [India]
Siles. Silesia [Poland & Czech Republic]
S. O. Kamerun / Uam-Gebiet [Cameroon, North Region]
S. O. Kamerun / Uam-Gebiet / bei Bossum Bossum [Cameroon, North Region]
Spoleto Spoleto [Italy, Province Perugia]
Ssargad (=Саргад, = Саргадъ) Sarhad, landscape (mountain plateau) between Zahedan and Iran Shar [Iran, Sistan and Baluchestan Province]
Stuttg. Stuttgart [Germany]
Sutschan / Ussuri Partisansk [Russia, Far East, Primorje]
Syrakus Syracuse [Italy, Sicily]
Takao Kaohsiung [Taiwan]
Togo / Bismarckburg Bismarckburg, a former colonial station close to Yégué [Togo, Region Centrale, Pref. Sotouboua]
Toyenmongai bei / Tainan Formosa central part of Tainan [Taiwan]
Triest Trieste [Italy]
Tunisi / dint [Tunisia]
Ungarn [Hungary]
Usambara Usambara Mountains [Tanzania]
W. Australien / Marloo Station / Wurarga Marloo Station, Wurarga [Australia, Western Australia]
W. Sumatra / Bungus / Bucht Padang Bungus Bay [Indonesia, Sumatra]
Wustung / b. Habelschwerdt Stara Bystrzyca close Bystrzyca Kłodzka [Poland, Lower Silesian Province]

Results

Abrachyglossum capitatum (Loew, 1847)

Conops capitatus Loew, 1847: 2; type localities: ‟Vaterland: Es scheint nicht über das Alpengebiet hinauszugehen und kömmt auch im schlesischen Gebirge vor.” – available, valid.

♀ syntype: (1) “Reinerz / 13/7 41”; (2) ‟Brachyglossum ♀ / capitatum Lw / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟Abrachyglossum / capitatum ♀ / Stuke det. 2004”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Riesengeb. / VII”; (2) ‟capitatus / Loew”; (3) ‟Abrachyglossum / capitatum ♂ / Stuke det. 2004”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Altenbg. / 7/8”; (2) ‟Coll. / Gerst.”; (3) ‟Brachyglossum ♂ / capitatum Lw / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (4) ‟Abrachyglossum / capitatum ♂ / Stuke det. 2004””.

Loew (1847) described only the female of A. capitatum but obviously had several specimens at hand because he gave a range for the distribution of the new species. In ZMHB there are only three specimens likely to have been collected before 1847, and which, therefore, should be accepted as syntypes.

Australoconops perbellus (Kröber, 1939)

Conops perbellum Kröber 1939b: 601–602; type locality: ‟W. Australien, Marloo Station, Wurarga” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Typus”; (3) ‟W. Australien / Marloo Station / Wurarga 8.1935 / Gebr. Goerling S. G.”; (4) ‟Conops / perbellum / ♂ Kröb.”.

Australoconops pseudocellifer (Kröber, 1939)

Conops pseudocellifer Kröber 1939b: 601; type locality: ‟Neuholland” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟5518”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops / pseudocellifer / 1938 ♀ Krb”; (5) ‟Conops ♀ / aurosa Herm / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (6) ‟aureorufa / Macq. / Nov.Holl. Schultz”.

Australoconops unicinctus (Kröber, 1939)

Conops unicinctus Kröber 1939b: 603–604; type localities: ‟S. W. Australien, Kalamunda”, ‟Port Philipp” – available, valid.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟3039”; (2) ‟Typus”; (3) ‟Conops / unicinctus / n sp”; (4) ‟pica / pica et aureorufa / Macq. ? / Pt. Phil. Coulon”.

Kröber (1939) described the material he used for the description of A. unicinctus as follows: ‟♂♀. ♀ als pica von mir beschrieben. Type: Berlin. ♂ von S. W. Australien, Kalamunda, 9.iii.–11.iii. Type: London” [♂♀. ♀ described as pica by me. Type: Berlin. ♂ from S. W. Australia, Kalamunda, 9.iii.-11.iii. Type: London].” Schneider (2010) and Stuke (2017) misinterpreted this statement and suggested only ‟Australien, Kalamunda” as the type locality. In fact Kröber (1916) also redescribed ‟Conops picus Mcq.” [= Australoconops picus (Macquart, 1851)] and gave ‟Port Phillipp” as the location. Therefore ‟Port Phillipp” should be treated as a second locus typicus and the specimen described above regarded as the female syntype of A. unicinctus.

Brachyceraea brevicornis (Loew, 1847)

Conops brevicornis Loew, 1847: 23; type locality: ‟Brusa im nördlichen Kleinasien” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Brusa / 8/42 A. m”; (2) ‟Coll. / H. Loew”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Brachyceraea ♂ / brevicornis LW” / O. Kröber det 1912”.

Conops acuticornis Loew, 1847

Conops acuticornis Loew, 1847: 8-9; type localities: ‟Das Alpengebiet; auch in Württemberg und Schlesien” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Conops ceriaeformis Meigen, 1824.

♂ syntypus: (1) ‟Märkl.”; (2) ‟Coll. / H. Loew”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conopilla ♂ / ceriaeformis mg / O. Kröber det 1912”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Conops ♂ / ceriaeformis / Stuke det. 2003”.

♂ syntypus: (1) ‟Siles. / Sellind.”; (2) ‟Coll. / H. Loew”; (3) ‟Paratypus”; (4) ‟Conopilla ♂ / ceriaeformis mg / O. Kröber det 1912”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Conops ♂ / ceriaeformis / Stuke det. 2003”.

♂ syntypus: (1) ‟cc. C. signat / v. Roser * / Stuttg.”; (2) ‟Coll. / H. Loew”; (3) ‟Paratypus”; (4) ‟Conopilla ♂ / ceriaeformis mg / O. Kröber det 1912”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Conops ♂ / ceriaeformis / Stuke det. 2003”.

Conops atrimanus Kröber, 1939

Conops apicalis var. atrimanus Kröber 1939a: 379; type locality: ‟Uam, Kamerun” – available, invalid: available, invalid: junior synonym of Conops ferruginosus Kröber, 1915.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟S. O. Kamerun / Uam-Gebiet / G. Tessmann S. G. / bei Bossum [written perpendicularly] / 29.6.14 [written perpendicularly]”; (2) ‟Conops apicalis / var atrimanus Krb. / det. Kröber 1938”.

Conops bipunctatus Loew, 1852

Conops bipunctatus Loew 1852: 659; locus typicus not given – available, invalid: junior primary homonym of Physocephala bipunctata (Macquart, 1844), senior synonym of Conops rondanii Bezzi, 1901.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟3037”; (2) ‟Typus”; (3) ‟Conops / (Smithiconops) / rondanii / Stuke det. 2003”.

Conops braunsii Kröber, 1915

Conops braunsii Kröber 1915a: 44; type locality: ‟Lindi, Ostafrika, Bothaville” – available, valid

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Ost-Afrika / Lindi / Fülleborn S.”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Conops ♀ / braunsii Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Conops camaronensis Kröber, 1939

Conops camaronensis Kröber 1939a: 380; type locality: ‟Uam v.” – available, valid.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟S. O. Kamerun / Uam-Gebiet / G. Tessmann S. G. / 29.6.14 [written perpendicularly]”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops camarunensis [sic!] / Krb. / det. Kröber 1938”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟S. O. Kamerun / Uam-Gebiet / G. Tessmann S. G. / 29.6.14 [written perpendicularly] / bei Bossum [written perpendicularly]”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops camarunensis [sic!] / Krb. / det. Kröber 1938”.

Conops ferruginosus Kröber 1915

Conops ferruginosus Kröber 1915a: 40; type locality: ‟Kap der guten Hoffnung” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟3036”; (2) ‟Conops ♀ / ferruginosa Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Type”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Conops frontosus Kröber, 1916

Conops frontosus Kröber 1916: 57; type locality: ‟Sikkim” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♂ / frontosus Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

C. frontosus belongs in the subgenus Asiconops.

Conops indicus Kröber, 1916

Conops indicus Kröber 1916: 45; type locality: ‟Sikkim, Darjeeling” – available, valid.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟? Sikhim ? / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Conops ♂ / indicus Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟? Sikhim ? / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♂ / indicus Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟? Sikhim ? / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Conops ♀ / indicus Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟? Sikhim ? / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♀ / indicus Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Bases on the information in the original description there should be 2 male and 5 female syntypes in the ZMHB. Therefore, 3 females are lost. C. indicus belongs in the subgenus Asiconops.

Conops insignis Loew, 1848

Conops insignis Loew 1848: 300–301; type locality: ‟Ragusa” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Ragusa / Sturm”; (2) ‟Coll. / H. Loew”; (3) ‟Type”; (4) ‟Conops ♂ / insignis Lw. / O. Kröber det 1912”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Conops ♂ / insignis / Stuke det. 2003”.

Conops laetus Becker, 1922

Conops laeta Becker 1922: 200–201; type locality: ‟Sarepta, Süd-Russland” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Conops insignis Loew 1848.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Sarepta / 30225”; (2) ‟Typus”; (3) ‟Con. laeta / Beck / det. Becker”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (5) ‟Conops ♀ / insignis / Stuke det. 2003”.

The specimen is almost completely destroyed.

Conops maculiventris Kröber, 1916

Conops maculiventris Kröber 1916: 50–51; type locality: ‟Sikkim; Birma, Carina Cheba” – available, valid.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♂ / maculiventris Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Based on the information in the original description there should be a male and a female syntype, but only the male syntype was found. C. maculiventris belongs in the subgenus Asiconops.

Conops minor Becker, 1922

Conops minor Becker 1922: 201–202; type localities: ‟Sarepta, Bozen, Ungarn, Griechenland” – available, invalid: junior primary homonym of Physocephala minor (Walker, 1852), junior synonym of Conops flavifrons Meigen, 1804.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Bozen / 4.7.96 / Friese”; (2) ‟42201”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (4) ‟Conops / flavifrons ♂ / Stuke det. 2003”; (5) ‟Syntypus / Conops minor / Becker, 1922 / labelled by Stuke 2003”.

♂ syntype (1) ‟Ungarn / 40873”; (2) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (3) ‟Conops / flavifrons ♂ / Stuke det. 2003”; (4) ‟Syntypus / Conops minor / Becker, 1922 / labelled by Stuke 2003”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Graecia / 54367”; (2) ‟minor /Beck.”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (4) ‟Conops / flavifrons ♀ / Stuke det. 2003”; (5) ‟Syntypus / Conops minor / Becker, 1922 / labelled by Stuke 2003”.

Based on the original description there should be 7 female and 3 male syntypes. There is additional material in the collection which might represent further syntypes, but all of these additional specimens were identified by Kröber in 1912 as C. flavifrons, and it therefore seems improbable that Becker described from these specimens.

Conops nigrofasciatus Kröber, 1916

Conops nigrofasciatus Kröber 1916: 46–47; type locality: ‟Schwegyin bei Rangoon” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Schwegyin / 11.97 / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♀ / nigrofasciatus Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

C. nigrifrons belongs in the subgenus Asiconops.

Conops punctifrons Kröber, 1916

Conops punctifrons Kröber 1916: 52; type locality: ‟Sikkim” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♀ / punctifrons Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

C. punctifrons belongs in the subgenus Asiconops.

Conops rugifrons Karsch, 1888

Conops rugifrons Karsch 1888: 381; type locality: ‟Usambara” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Usambara / C. W. Schmidt / Febr - März 86”; (3) ‟Conops / rugifrons N.”.

Conops sareptanus Becker, 1922

Conops sareptana Becker 1922: 202; type locality: ‟Sarepta”– available, invalid: junior synonym of Conops silaceus Wiedemann, 1824.

♀ holotypus: (1) ‟Sarepta / 30227”; (2) ‟Typus”; (3) ‟sareptana Beck.”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Contrary to the original description, the holotype is a female.

Conops stylatus Kröber, 1915

Conops stylatus Kröber 1915a: 56–57; type localities: ‟Belgischer Kongo; Kibimbi 2.II., Kilwa 19.I.”, ‟Sansibar” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Conops elegans Meigen, 1804.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟7354”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Conops ♂ / stylatus Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (4) ‟Sansibar / 6°s. Hildebr.”; (5) ‟Conops / elegans / Stuke det. 2003”.

Conops vitellinus Loew, 1847

Conops vitellinus Loew 1847a: 4–5; type locality: ‟Gegend von Triest” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Triest / 13/9 Zllr.”; (2) ‟Coll. / H. Loew”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♂ / vitellinus Lw. / O. Kröber det 1912”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Conops ♂ / vitellinus / Stuke det. 2003”.

Dalmannia confusa Becker, 1922

Dalmannia confusa: 294; type locality: ‟Kroatien, Kriviput” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Dalmannia dorsalis (Fabricius, 1794)

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Kriviput / 31.5.90”; (2) ‟Kroatien / 400/2.”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟D. confusa / Beck. / det. Becker”.

Deleskampomyia fasciata Kröber, 1940

Deleskampomyia fasciata Kröber 1940a: 71–72; type locality: ‟W. Australia, Marloo Stat., Wurarga” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Typus”; (3) ‟W. Australien / Marloo Station / Wurgara 8.-9. 35 / A. Goerling S. G.”; (4) ‟Deleskampo- / myia fasciata / ♂ Krb”.

Leopoldius valvatus (Kröber, 1914)

Brachyglossum valvatum Kröber 1914: 186; type locality: ‟Sarepta” – available, valid.

♀ lectotype designated by Stuke et al. (2015): (1) ‟Sarepta Christoph”; (2) ‟nov. sp.”; (3) ‟Brachyglossum valvatum Kröb. ♀ / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. Berlin”; (5) ‟Lectotypus / Brachyglossum valvatum / Kröber, 1914 / des. Stuke & Clements 2015”.

Myopa argentata Stuke, 2005

Myopa argentata Stuke 2005: 543–545; type locality: ‟Griechenland, Thessalia, Prov. Magnesia, Peninsula Pilio, Platanias 60 km SE Volos, Afilianes, 39°09’5”N, 23°17’0”E, 200 m” – available, valid

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Greece: Thessalia / Prov. Magnesia, Peninsula Pilio / Platanias (Πλατανιας) 60 km / SE Volos (Βολος), Afilianes / 39°09’5N, 023°17’0E / 15.IV.2003 200 m/ leg. C. Lange & J. Ziegler”; (2) ‟Holotypus / Myopa argentata / spec. nov. ♂ / Stuke det. 2003”.

Myopa clausseni Stuke & Clements, 2008

Myopa clausseni Stuke & Clements 2008: 10–12; type locality: ‟Greece: NE-Crete, upper part of Chersónnissos, at 100–200m [35,34°N, 25,49°E]” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟NE-Kreta, oberhalb / Chersónnissos, / 100-200 m / leg. Claußen 18.4.1987”; (2) ‟Myopa ♀ / polystigma Rond. / det. Claußen 1988”; (3) ‟Holotypus / Myopa clausseni / spec. nov. ♀ / Stuke & Clements / det. 2004”.

Myopa hirsuta Stuke & Clements, 2008

Myopa hirsuta Stuke & Clements 2008: 12–14; type locality: ‟Germany: Döttlingen (52,94°N, 8,38°E)” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟NW.-D: Döttlingen / [Oldenburg] 30.4.1978 / leg. Barkemeyer”; (2) ‟Holotypus / Myopa hirsuta / spec. nov. ♂ / Stuke & Clements / det. 2004”.

Myopa maetai Stuke, 2003

Myopa maetai Stuke 2003: 413–417; type locality: ‟Japan; Kyusyu, Oita Pref., Mt. Kujyu” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Kyusyu / Mt. Kujyu / Oita Pref. / 23–24.iv.1996 / Col. Y. Maeta”; (2) [Japanese text]; (3) ‟Holotypus / Myopa maetai / spec. nov. ♂ / Stuke det. 2002”.

Myopa nigrifacies Becker, 1922

Myopa dorsalis Fbr. var. nigrifacies Becker 1922: 289; locus typicus not given – available, invalid: junior synonym of Myopa dorsalis Fabricius, 1794.

Holotype of unknown sex: (1) ‟Asia minor / Taurus cilic. / 1895. Holtz”; (2) ‟39487”; (3) ‟var. nigrifacies”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Becker (1922) only described M. nigrifacies as one of his couplets in his key to Myopa, without any additional information concerning origin, sex, or number of specimens he had at hand. Kröber (1939a) subsequently identified and characterized the type specimen thus: ‟nur Thoraxrest mit beiden Flügeln vorhanden” [‟only the thorax remaining, with both wings present”]. There are only four specimens of M. dorsalis from the Becker collection at ZMHB. Three of these can be excluded as type material of M. nigrifacies because they do not fit with the original description. The only remaining specimen is, in fact, the poor remnant described by Kröber, which has to be interpreted as the holotype of M. nigrifacies, with the sex not identified.

Myopa strandi Duda, 1940

Myopa polystigma var. strandi Duda 1940: 397–398; type localities: ‟Nimptsch”, ‟Habelschwerdt (Mittelschlesien)” [Poland] – available, invalid: junior synonym of Myopa vicaria Walker, 1849.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟18 4 11”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♂ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟18 4 11”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♂ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟17 4 11”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi / D ♂ d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♂ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟20 4 12”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♂ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟20 4 12”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♂ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟20 4 12”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♀ [sic.] d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♂ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟17 4 11”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♀ d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♀ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟20 4 12”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ [sic.] d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♀ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟18 4 11”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ [sic.] d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♀ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟18 4 11”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♀ d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♀ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟22 3 12”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ [sic.] d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♀ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟17 4 11”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ [sic.] d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♀ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟21 4 11”; (2) ‟Nimptsch / Schles. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi D / ♂ [sic.] d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Myopa vicaria ♀ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟26 4 24”; (2) ‟Wustung / b. Habelschwerdt / I. Duda”; (3) ‟Strandi / D / ♂ [sic.] d. Duda”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟ ♀ / Walker 1849 / det.: Flügel 2009”.

Myopotta horrida (Becker, 1922)

Myopa horrida Becker 1922: 290–291; type locality: ‟Griechenland, S. Morea, Taygetos” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Myopotta rubripes (Villeneuve, 1909).

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Morea mer., Tayget.”; (2) ‟Holtz”; (3) ‟49312”; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟horrida / Beck / det. Becker”.

Physocephala assamensis Kröber, 1915

Physocephala assamensis Kröber 1915b: 121–122; type locality: ‟Assam” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Assam”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♀ / assamensis Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Physocephala aterrima Kröber, 1915

Physocephala aterrima Kröber 1915b: 122–123; type locality: ‟Sikkim” [India] – available, valid.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♂ / aterrima Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♀ / aterrima Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Kröber (1915b) stated in the original description that the type material was in his own collection.

Physocephala aureopygia Kröber, 1915

Physocephala aureopygia Kröber 1915b: 123–124; type locality: ‟Sikkim, Cap York” – available, valid.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Physocephala / aureopygia Krb.”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♂ / aureopygia Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♂ / aureopygia Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟? Sikhim ? / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♀ / aureopygia Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / E. Gutman, S. V.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / aureopygia Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

As with P. aterima, Kröber (1915b) stated in the original description that the type material was in his own collection.

Physocephala bicolor Kröber, 1915

Physocephala bicolor Kröber 1915b: 136–137; type locality: ‟Matto Grosso” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Mattogrosso / Rohde.”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♂ / bicolor Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Physocephala bimarginipennis Karsch, 1887

Physocephala bimarginipennis Karsch 1887: 10; type locality: ‟Pungo-Andongo” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Pungo Andongo / A. v. Homayer”; (2) ‟11031”; (3) ‟Physocephala / bimarginipennis / n. sp.”; (4) ‟Holotypus”.

Physocephala castanoptera (Loew, 1853)

Conops castanopterus Loew 1853: 33; type locality: ‟Savanah”, ‟Carolina” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala sagittaria (Say, 1823).

1♀ syntype: (1) ‟Carolina, Germar”; (2) ‟Coll. / H. Loew”; (3) ‟Type”; (4) ‟Conops / castanopterus”; (5) ‟Physocephala ♀ / sagittaria Say / O. Kröber det 1913”.

Stuke (2017) wrongly listed this species as a nomen dubium when in fact it is a junior synonym of P. saggitaria, as first suggested by Kröber (1915c).

Physocephala curticornis Kröber, 1915

Physocephala curticornis Kröber 1915d: 54–55; type locality: ‟Ungarn”, ‟Ungarn: Cinkota” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala vittata (Fabricius, 1794).

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Hungria”; (2) ‟antennis / brevi ♂ / tur”; (3) ‟Type”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♀ / curticornis Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”.

The syntype reported here has no abdomen and the sex can therefore only be inferred from Kröber’s identification label. The specimen was previously overlooked in the study reported by Stuke (2016) although the synonymy was assumed. The short antennae for which the species was described are a morphological aberration.

Physocephala fraterna (Loew, 1847)

Conops fraternus Loew 1847a: 18–19; type locality: ‟Kleinasien, Griechenland, Dalmatien und ganz Italien, von Zeller by Syrakus, Rom und in der Gegend von Spoleto gefangen” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala vittata (Fabricius, 1794).

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Dalmat.”; (2) ‟[?] abd. segm. 5”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♂ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (4) ‟? Typus”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Syrakus / 17/6. Zllr.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♂ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟? Typus”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Syrakus / 4/5. Zllr.”; (2) ‟var. aurat. / fronteni / gra”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♂ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (4) ‟? Typus”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Syrakus / 4/5. Zllr.”; (2) ‟var. aurat. / fronteni / gra”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♂ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (4) ‟? Typus”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Rom / 26/8. Zllr.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (4) ‟? Typus”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Syrakus / 20/4. Zllr.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟? Typus”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Spoleto / 4/9. Zllr.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟? Typus”.

♀ syntype: (1) [no text, labelled only with a light blue triangle meaning the material was collected from Asia Minor by Loew 1841–42]; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”.

♂ syntype: (1) [no text, labelled only with a light blue triangle meaning the material was collected from Asia Minor by Loew 1841–42]; (2) ‟Physocephala ♂ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”.

♀ syntype: (1) [no text, labelled only with a light blue square with a black triangle, meaning the material was collected from Rhodes by Loew in 1842]; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Astrabad / Christoph”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♂ / fraterna Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1912”.

Physocephala furax Becker, 1913

Physocephala furax Becker 1913a: 612–613; type locality: ‟Pers.-Beludshistan, zwischen Dus-abad und Kala-i-bid, Ssargad, Kirman” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala antiqua (Wiedemann, 1830).

♂ lectotype designated by Stuke (2015): (1) ‟Дузъ-абъ–Кала / -и Бидъ. Саргадъ / Кирманъ 15/23.VI98”; (2) ‟Эксп. В. Персiю / 1898 / Заруδный”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Physocephala / furax Beck / det. Becker”; (5) ‟Lectotypus / Physocephala furax / Becker & Stein, 1915 / des. Stuke, 2015”.

Physocephala maculigera Kröber, 1915

Physocephala truncata Lw. var. maculigera Kröber 1915d: 71; type localities: ‟Oberägypten, Tunis, Sinai, Syrien, Algir, Biskra”, ‟Tunis, Oberägypten, Syrien, Algier, Constantine, Biskra” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala vittata (Fabricius, 1794).

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Physocephala ♂ / maculigera Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (2) ‟Physocephala / maculigera ♂ / Stuke det. 2004”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Tunisi / dint 1882 / G. e L. Doria”; (2) ‟113.”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♂ / maculigera Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (5) ‟Physocephala / maculigera ♂ / Stuke det. 2004”; (6) ‟? Typus”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Ober. Aeg.”; (2) ‟Variet. ae- / gyptiaca”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♀ / maculigera Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (4) ‟Physocephala / maculigera ♀ / Stuke det. 2004”; (5) ‟? Typus”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Physocephala ♀ / maculigera Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (2) ‟Physocephala / maculigera ♀ / Stuke det. 2004”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Physocephala ♀ / maculigera Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (2) ‟Physocephala / maculigera ♀ / Stuke det. 2004”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Ober. Aeg.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / maculigera Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟Physocephala / maculigera ♀ / Stuke det. 2004”; (4) ‟? Typus”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Ober. Aeg.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / maculigera Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟Physocephala / maculigera ♀ / Stuke det. 2004”; (4) ‟? Typus”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Tunisi / dint 1881 / G. e L. Doria”; (2) ‟113.”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♀ / maculigera Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (5) ‟Physocephala / maculigera ♀ / Stuke det. 2004”; (6) ‟? Typus”.

Physocephala persica Becker, 1913

Physocephala persica Becker 1913a: 609–610 + pl. xiv; type localities: ‟Pers.-Beludshistan, Kirman, aus der Umgegend von Bampur und Basman, sowie zwischen Ku-i-Murgak und Dech-i-Papid, 21.VII.–18.VIII.1898; ferner aus der Umgebung von Kunscha, 6.V.1901)” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala pusilla (Meigen, 1804).

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Ку-и-Мургакъ / Дэх-и-Пабид Сар- / гад Кирм. 14/18 VIII98”; (2) ‟Эксп. В. Персiю / 1898 / Заруδный”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Physocephala / persica Beck / det. Becker”.

From the original description there should be four syntypes. The sex was not given in the original description.

Physocephala rubicunda Kröber, 1915

Physocephala rubicunda Kröber 1915c: 94; type locality: ‟Südafrika” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala maculipes (Bigot, 1887).

♂ holotype: (1) ‟3055”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♂ / rubicunda Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Physocephala rufithorax Kröber, 1915

Physocephala rufithorax Kröber 1915b: 138–139; type localities: ‟Paraguay-Asuncion, Villa Morra, 29. XL, Brasil- Sta. Catharina; Peru-Madre de Dios.” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Asuncion, / Paraguy / Villa Morra / 29.11.1905 / J. O. Anisits [written perpendicularly]”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♀ / rufithorax Kröb / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Physocephala schmideggeri Stuke, 2017

Physocephala schmideggeri Stuke 2017: 613–619; type locality: ‟United Arab Emirates / Wadi Wurayah 25,40 N / 46,28 E” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟United Arab Emirates / Wadi Wurayah 25,40 N / 46,28 E lg. Schmid-Egger / 11.-19.III.2009 uae8”; (2) ‟Holotypus / Physocephala / schmideggeri / spec. nov. ♂ / des. Stuke 2014”.

Physocephala sumatrensis Kröber, 1915

Physocephala sumatrensis Kröber 1915b: 119–120; type locality: ‟Sumatra, Padang Bungus-Bucht” – available, valid.

♂ holotypus: (1) ‟W. Sumatra 1.-6 / XII.08 Bungus / Bucht Padang / Schoede S. G.”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♂ / sumatrensis Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Physocephala truncata (Loew, 1847)

Conops truncatus Loew, 1847: 21; type locality: ‟Sicilien; von Zeller zweimal im Juni bei Syrakus gefangen” – available, valid.

♂ syntypus: (1) ‟Syrakus / 17/6 Zllr.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♂ / truncata Lw / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟Physocephala / truncata ♂ / Stuke det. 2004”; (4) ‟? Typus”.

♂ syntypus: (1) ‟Syrakus / 17/6 Zllr.”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♂ / truncata Lw / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟Physocephala / truncata ♂ / Stuke det. 2004”; (4) ‟? Typus”.

These two syntypes have been previously overlooked. Unfortunately, they have been misinterpreted and are not a colour morph of P. vittata as proposed by Stuke (2016) but are in fact conspecific with Physocephala vaginalis (Rondani, 1865). This synonymy was overlooked because whilst the female of P. vaginalis is easily identified due to its long theca, it is very difficult to recognise the male. Only by using the key of Stuke (2016) can males of P. vittata and P. vaginalis be acurately separated. Conops vaginalis Rondani 1865 is therefore placed as junior synonym of Conops truncatus Loew, 1847 (syn. nov.).

Physocephala unicolor Kröber, 1915

Physocephala unicolor Kröber 1915b: 145; type locality: ‟Paraguay, San Bernardino” – available, valid.

♂ holotypus: (1) ‟Paraguay / San Bernardino / K. Fiebrig S. V. / 18.IV. [written perpendicularly]”; (2) ‟Hyptis vestita / Infloreszens”; (3) ‟Type”; (4) ‟Physocephala ♀ [sic] / unicolor Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”. The abdomen is broken off and glued on a piece of paper which is pinned separately, bearing the lable: ‟abd. of type / Physocephala / unicolor Krb.”.

Physocephala vespiformis Kröber, 1915

Physocephala vespiformis Kröber 1915b: 135–136; type localities: ‟Paraguay Asuncion, San João; Surinam, Juanjui-Amazonas.” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala aurifrons (Walker, 1849).

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Asuncion, / Paraguay / 1906 / J. D. Anisits [written perpendicularly]”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♀ / vespiformis Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟3011”; (2) ‟Physocephala ♀ / vespiformis Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Cotype”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟San João / d. Rey. / Sello.”; (2) ‟Cotype”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♀ / vespiformis Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Kröber (1915b) stated in the original description that the ‟Type” is in ZMHB and identified an unknown number of females from different locations. The three syntypes listed here conform with the stated loci typici and therefore all of these specimens should be treated a syntypes.

Physoconops (Pachyconops) gracilior (Kröber, 1915)

Conops gracilior Kröber 1915e: 150–151; type locality: ‟Paraguay, San Bernardino” – available, valid.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Paraguay / San Bernardino / K. Fiebrig S. V. / 3.iv. [written perpendicularly]”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Conops ♂ / gracilior Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Paraguay / San Bernardino / K. Fiebrig S. V. / 11.iv. [written perpendicularly]”; (2) ‟Hyptis vestita / Infloreszens”; (3) ‟Conops ♂ / gracilior Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Paraguay / San Bernardino / K. Fiebrig S. V. / I. [written perpendicularly]”; (2) ‟Conops ♂ / gracilior Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Paraguay / San Bernardino / K. Fiebrig S. V. / 7.iv. [written perpendicularly]”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Conops ♀ / gracilior Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Physoconops longistylus (Kröber, 1915)

Conops longistylus Kröber 1915e: 149–150; type locality: ‟S. João del Rey - Brasilien” – available, valid.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟3022”; (2) ‟S. João d. Rey. / Sello”; (3) ‟Conops ♀ / longistylus Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Physoconops perbellum Kröber, 1939

Physoconops perbellum Kröber 1939c: 467–468; type locality: ‟Argentinien, Buenos Aires” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physoconops hermanni (Kröber, 1915).

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Argentinien / Prov. Buenos Aires / 1.4.10 [written perpendicularly]”; (3) [illegible text]; (4) ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Physoconops / perbellum / n. sp.”.

Physoconops striatifrons (Kröber, 1915)

Conops striatifrons Kröber 1915e: 132; type localities: ‟Georgia, Texas (?)”, ‟Lincoln Nebraska” VIII., Georgia” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physoconops nigrimanus (Bigot, 1887).

1 ♂ syntype: (1) ‟Georgia / Morrison”; (2) ‟7864”; (3) ‟Type”; (4) ‟Conops ♂ / striatifrons Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Kröber (1915e) did not state the exact number of syntypes he used for the description, but it is likely that he had only the female mentioned above plus another female which was in his collection and which was almost certainly destroyed during World War II.

Physoconops varipes (Kröber, 1915)

Conops angustus var. varipes Kröber 1915e: 153–154; type locality: ‟Paraguay, San Bernardino” – available, valid.

♂ holotypus: (1) ‟Paraguay / San Bernardino / K. Fiebrig S. V. / 11.XII. [written perpendicularly]”; (2) ‟Conops angustus / Kröb. var. ♂ / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Pleurocerina nigrifacies (Kröber, 1940)

Paraconops nigrifacies Kröber 1940a: 66; type locality: ‟W. Australien, Marloo Stat., Wurarga” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Typus”; (3) ‟W. Australien / Marloo Station / Wurarga 8.-9. 35 / A. Goerling S. G.”; (4) ‟Paraconops / nigrifacies / ♂ Kröb”.

Pleurocerinella bartaki Stuke, 2009

Pleurocerinella bartaki Stuke 2009: 212-215; type locality: ‟Botswana: Betschmanaland Prot. / Kalahari / Severelela - Kooa” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Betschmanaland-Prot. / Kalahari / Severelela - Kooa / XI.04 / L. Schultze S.”; (2) ‟Pleurocerinella / dioctriaeformis Brun.”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (4) ‟Holotypus / Pleurocerinella / bartaki / Stuke det. 2009”.

Pseudophysocephala caenoneura Kröber, 1939

Pseudophysocephala caenoneura Kröber 1939a: 385; type locality: ‟Nyassa See, Langenberg [sic!]” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Nyassa-See / Langenburg / 26.VII.-8.VIII. 98 / Fülleborn S.”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Pseudophysocephala / stylata Kb. / det. Kröber 1938”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Pseudophysocephala constricta (Kröber, 1915)

Physocephala constricta Kröber 1915c: 85-86; type locality: ‟Cap.” – available, valid

♀ lectotype designated by Camras (2001): (1) ‟3053”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♀ / constricta Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”.

Camras (2001) referred to the specimen listed here as a lectotype, stating: ‟The female of constricta is designated as the holotype as important characters are in that sex.” This comment is interpreted as a lectotype designation by Stuke (2017).

Pseudophysocephala fenestralis Kröber, 1939

Pseudophysocephala fenestralis Kröber 1939a: 386-387; type localities: ‟Cape Prov., George”, ‟Nyassasee, Langenburg” – available, valid.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Nyassa-See / Langenburg / 14.V.1899/ Fülleborn S.”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Pseudophysocephala / fenestralis Krb. /det. Kröber 1938”.

Pseudophysocephala nitida (Kröber, 1915)

Conops nitidus Kröber 1915a: 54–55; type locality: ‟Togo, Bismarcksburg” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Togo / Bismarckburg / 2.–18.vi.93 / L. Conradt S.”; (2) ‟Conops ♂ / nitidus Kröb/ O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Cotype”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. Berlin”; (5) ‟Pseudophysocephala / nitidus / Kröber / det. Camras, 2000”.

In addition to the male holotype there is also a female specimen in the collection at ZMHB bearing the same lables as the holotype. In the original description only the male sex was described and it was not stated whether or not there was more than one specimen available at the time. Kröber (1915) did, however, mention elsewhere in the same paper that in several cases he had more than one specimen of a sex at hand. On this basis we currently assume that the male specimen in the ZMHB is the holotype. On the other hand, Camras (2001) reported three syntypes, comprising the specimens from the Berlin collection together with another male deposited at USNM.

Pseudophysocephala stylata Kröber, 1939

Pseudophysocephala stylata Kröber 1939a: 385–386; type locality: ‟Langenberg [sic!]” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Pseudophysocephala caenoneura Kröber, 1939.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟Nyassa-See / Langenburg / 1.-26.VII.98 / Fülleborn S.”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Pseudophysocephala / stylata Krb.”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (6) ‟Pseudophysocephala / caenoneura Kröber / det. Camras 1999”.

Sicus alpinus Stuke, 2002

Sicus alpinus Stuke 2002: 246–251; type locality: ‟Austria, Kärnten, in the south of Mauthen” – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Kärnten / s. Mauthen / 13.-16.7.1939 / Zwick”; (2) ‟Holotypus / Sicus alpinus spec. / nov. ♀ / Stuke det. 2002”.

Sicus nigricans Kröber, 1939

Sicus ferrugineus L. var. nigricans Kröber 1939a: 370; type locality: ‟Sutschan, Ussuri” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Sicus nishitapensis (Matsumura, 1916).

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Sutschan / Ussuri”; (2) ‟Sicus / nigricans Kröb.”; (3) ‟Holotypus”; (4) ‟Sicus nishitapensis ♂ / Stuke det. 2003”.

Siniconops curtirostris (Kröber, 1916)

Conops curtirostris Kröber 1916: 52–53 [as ‟Conops celebensis Mej.”]; type locality: ‟Sikkim”; available, invalid: junior synonym of Siniconops sepulchralis (Brunetti, 1912).

5♂♂ syntypes: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Conops ♂ / curtirostris Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♂ syntypes: (1) ‟? Sikhim ? / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Conops ♂ / curtirostris Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♂ / curtirostris Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Conops ♀ / curtirostris Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♀ syntype: (1) ‟Sikhim / Coll. Bingham”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Conops ♀ / curtirostris Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

This material was overlooked by Stuke (2018) in his review of the genus Siniconops. According to the original description Kröber examined 8 males and 3 female specimens of this species. Presumably Kröber kept one pair, which was destroyed with his collection, and only these 7 males and 2 females remain. There are also a further 2 males and 1 female with the same collecting labels but lacking Kröber´s identification label. These specimens were probably not examined by Kröber, however, and are very unlikely to be syntypes.

This long series of this species was not previously known and indicates some variation concerning the yellow marking on the hind margins of tergites 2–4 (varying from no yellow hind margins to distinctly yellow hind margins), the colouration of the legs (from light brown to almost completely black) and the colouration of the claws (from having a distinct brown base with a black tip to being completely black). Siniconops fuscatus Qiao & Chao, 1998 falls within the variation of this species. There is no difference in the shape of the theca between the female syntypes of S. curtirostris and the female specimens of S. fuscatus reported by Stuke (2018). Therefore, these two species should be treated as conspecific, and Siniconops fuscatus Qiao & Chao, 1998 placed as junior synonym of Physocephala sepulchralis Brunetti 1912 (syn. nov.), along with S. curtirostris.

Siniconops nigripes (Kröber, 1913)

Conops nigripes Kröber 1913: 278–279; type localities: ‟Taihorinsho XI. und Sokutsu IX.”, ‟Toyenmongei bei Tanan (Formosa)”, ‟Kosempo”, ‟Tapani und Koshun” – available, valid.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Toyenmongai bei / Tainan Formosa / Rolle V.1910”; (2) ‟Conops / nigripes Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

♂ syntype: (1) ‟Toyenmongai bei / Tainan Formosa / Rolle V.1910”; (2) ‟Conops / nigripes Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Zodion asiaticum Becker, 1922

Zodion asiaticum Becker 1922: 283; type locality: ‟Alai Gebirge, S.-Sibirien” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Zodion cinereum (Fabricius, 1794).

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Alai Geb. / VII.1903”; (2) ‟508/6.”; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟asiaticum / Beck. / det. Becker”; (5) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”.

Zodion caesium Becker, 1908

Zodion caesium Becker 1908: 90–91; type locality: ‟St. Cruz” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟S. Cruz / 47401”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟caesium / Beck. / det. Becker”; (4) ‟Zodion / caesium / Type Beck. 1908 / Dr. Theod. Becker det.”.

Zodion grisescens Kröber, 1939

Zodion grisescens Kröber 1939d: 537; type locality: ‟N. Argentinien, Salta” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Zodion aureopygium Kröber, 1915.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟N-Argentinien / Salta 2500 m / [illegible text] / J. Steinbach S.V. / III-IV 1905” [written perpendicularly]; (3) ‟Typus”; (4) ‟Zodion / grisescens / ♂ n. sp. Krb”.

Zodion hauseri Stuke, 2014

Zodion hauseri Stuke 2014: 240–243; type locality: ‟Kazakhstan 29.–31.V.2001 / Charyn Valley W Chundza / 650 m 43°37’N, 79°21’E” – available, valid.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Kazakhstan 29.-31.V.2001 / Charyn valey W Chundza / 650m 43°37’N, 79°21’E / leg. M. Hauser”; (2) ‟Holotypus / Zodion hauseri / spec. nov. ♂ / des. Stuke 2014”.

Zodion malayensis Stuke, 2004

Zodion malayensis Stuke 2004: 187–188; type locality: ‟Malaysia, Pahang / 30 km, NE Raub, IV.-V., ET / 3°56N, 101°38E – available, valid.

♀ holotype: (1) ‟Malaysia, Pahang / 30 km, NE Raub, –300m / Lata Lembik, IV.-V., ET / 3°56’N, 101°38’E, 2002 / E. Jendenk + O. Šauša leg.”; (2) ‟Holotypus / Zodion malayensis /spec. nov. ♀ / Stuke det. 2004”.

Zodion pulchrum Loew, 1868

Zodion pulchrum Loew 1868: 384–385; locus typicus not given – available, invalid: junior synonym of Zodion erythrurum Rondani, 1865.

♂ holotype: (1) ‟Mersina / Lederer”; (2) ‟coll. / H. Loew”; (3) ‟Typus”; Zodion / pulchrum / Loew*”.

‟Mersina in Cilien” is the historical name of Mersin on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, and not in Italy as wrongly stated by Stuke (2017).

Specimens in ZMHB not justifiably assigned as type material

Conops rufifrons Doleschall, 1857

Conops rufifrons Doleschall 1857: 412–413; type locality: ‟Amboina”. – available, valid.

Kröber (1916) mentioned 2 male and 3 female types in the ZMHB. Of these, the following material was found in the collection: 1♀ with (1) ‟Conops ♀ / rufifrons Dol. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (2) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; 1 ♂ with (1) ‟3035”; (2) ‟ Conops ♂ / rufifrons Dol. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟rufifrons / Dolesch.* / Amboin. Felder.”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”. There was no information in the original description concerning the number or sex of the types. Horn et al. (1990) stated that the material collected in Java by Doleschall is in the Museum of Vienna. Therefore, there is doubt as to the actual depository of the type material; this requires further investigation.

Conops satanicus Bigot, 1887

Conops satanicus Bigot 1887a: 43; type locality: ‟Australie” – available, valid.

A ♀ specimen is present in ZMHB with the lables: (1) ‟Type”; (2) ‟5517”; (3) ‟Adeleide / Schumb.”; ‟Typus”; (5) ‟Conops T7 / satanicus Big.”. The holotype of C. satanicus is in NHML (Schneider 2010), so the Berlin specimen cannot be type material.

Myopa fasciata Meigen, 1804

Myopa fasciata Meigen 1804: 286; incomplete information about the locus typicus [‟Sie ist nicht selten” and ‟Eine Abänderung aus Frankreich”] – available, valid.

Three specimens are currently assigned as type material: 1♂, 2♀: (1) ‟Berlin / Erichson S.”; (2) ‟Type” [rotes Etikett]; (3) ‟Myopa / fasciata / Stuke det. 2002”. The male and female syntypes are all in MNHN (Stuke 2017) and there is no reason to believe the specimens in the ZMHB might be additional type specimens.

Physocephala amoena – invalid collection name

As far as we are aware there is no conopid known by this name in the published literature (Stuke 2017) and therefore it is interpreted as a collection name only. The female specimen of Physocephala pusilla (Meigen, 1804) in the collection which is labelled ‟Typus” under this name is therefore not a type specimen.

Physocephala annulata Kröber, 1913

Physocephala annulata Kröber 1913: 281; type locality: ‟Anping /. VII., Takao” [Taiwan] – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physocephala limbipennis de Meijere, 1910.

Two males deposited in the ZMHB have labels that fit with the locus typicus: (1) ‟Takao / 1.9.07”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Physocephala / annulata Kröb. / O. Kröber det. 1912”; one of these specimens also has a fourth lable: (4) ‟Physocephala / annulata /Kröb.”. From the original description an unknown number of male and female syntypes should be in the collection ‟Deutsches Ent. Museum”. In fact there are 4 male syntypes in the SDEI (Rohlfien and Ewald 1975), and therefore the material of ZMHB cannot be interpreted as type material.

Physoconops excisus (Wiedemann, 1830)

Conops excisa Wiedemann 1830b: 234; type locality: ‟Savannah”; HT ♂ [ZMUC, Parson 1948] – available, valid.

The male holotype of P. excisus is deposited in ZMUC (Parson 1948), and there is no reason to believe that one of two specimens in ZMHB from Loew’s collection might be type material. ♂: (1) ‟3018”; (2) ‟Conops ♂ / excisus Lw / O. Kröber det. 1913”; ♀: (1) ‟3018”; (2) ‟Conops ♀ / excisus Lw / O. Kröber det. 1913”.

Pseudophysocephala platycephala (Loew, 1853)

Conops platycephalus Loew 1853: 35; locus typicus not given – available, valid.

There is one specimen in the ZMHB which is labelled as a type as follows: (1) ‟3054”; (2) ‟Type”; (3) ‟Physocephala ♂ / platycephala Lw. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (3) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”; (4) ‟Allotype ♂ / Physocephala / Platycephala / (Loew) / det. Kröber, 1915”. This specimen belongs to P. platycephala and was mentioned by Camras (2001) as ‟other type from the Berlin Museum”. This specimen is not mentioned in the original description and is therefore not type material. The female holotype of P. platycephala is deposited in ZMUC (Camras 2001).

Zodion pictum Schiner, 1868

Zodion pictum Schiner 1868b: 370; type locality: ‟Columbien” – available, valid.

A male labelled (1) ‟Cotype”; (2) ‟Paratypus”; (3) ‟Costa Rica / S. Jose / 5. 25. / H. Schmidt”; (4) [blank blue label]; (5) ‟Zodion / pictum / Wd” is not type material because the locality data on the label does not fit with the original description. The holotype is deposited in the NMW (Kröber 1915e).

Type material lost from the ZMHB

Kröber (1939a) reported some Conopidae types which he could not find in the Berlin collection where he had expected them to be: Conops pugioniformis (Becker, 1913), Conops ruficornis Becker, 1913, Physocephala detecta Becker, 1913, Physocephala laeta Becker, 1913, Physocephala punctithorax Becker, 1913, and Physocephala zarudnyi Becker, 1913. All of these species were collected by N. Zarudny, and the material was sent back to Saint Petersburg after description. This material is now deposited in the collection of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Saint Petersburg (Narchuk and Ovtshinnikova pers. comm. in an email dated January 2019). There are only two species of which type material appears to have been lost from the ZMHB collection.

Physoconops fenestratus (Kröber 1915)

Conops fenestratus Kröber 1915e: 134–135; type locality: ‟Lincoln, Nebraska” – available, invalid: junior synonym of Physoconops brachyrhynchus.

Kröber (1915) described the female and male of P. fenestratus but referred only to a female ‟Type” which was deposited in the ‟Kgl. zool. Mus. Berlin.”. Therefore the male specimen should be interpreted as a paratype and the female specimen as a holotype. Only one female specimen was found in the collection: (1) ‟7703”; (2) ‟Dallas, / Texas Boll”; (3) ‟Conops ♀ / fenestratus Krb. / O. Kröber det. 1914”; (4) ‟Zool. Mus. / Berlin”. This specimen does not appear to be the male holotype due to wrong collecting site data. The type material of P. fenestratus seems therefore to be lost.

Sicus indicus Kröber, 1940

Sicus indicus F. Kröber 1940b: 244; type locality: ‟Himalaya” – available, valid: not recognized (nomen dubium).

Based on information in the original description, the male holotype of S. indicus should be in the ZMHB collection but could not be found there.

Acknowledgements

Several visits were made to the Museum of Berlin and several loans have been made within the last 20 years to facilitate work with the Conopidae collection. Jenny Pohl, Sven Marotzke, and Eliana Buenaventura were a great support, and it was always a pleasure to work in the collection and to enjoy their hospitality. Sven Marotzke rearranged the Conopidae collection and thereby found some missing types; he motivated us to finish this work. In addition, Olga Ovtshinnikova (Saint Petersburg) and Emilia Narchuk (Saint Petersburg) answered our queries about some of the “missing” types that are stored in the collection of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Frank Menzel (Müncheberg) helped to clarify one of the locations. David Clements (Cardiff) checked the English and commented an earlier draft of the manuscript.

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