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Research Article
Contribution to the knowledge of the subgenus Scymnus (Parapullus) Yang, 1978 (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae), with description of eight new species
expand article infoXiaosheng Chen, Shunxiang Ren, Xingmin Wang
‡ South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China
Open Access

Abstract

Eight new species of the subgenus Scymnus (Parapullus) Yang, 1978 from China are described and illustrated: S. (P.) hastatus sp. n., S. (P.) baxianshanensis sp. n., S. (P.) laojielingensis sp. n., S. (P.) annuliformis sp. n., S. (P.) papillatus sp. n., S. (P.) dichotomus sp. n., S. (P.) shenmuensis sp. n. and S. (P.) yanzigouensis sp. n. Diagnoses and distributions are provided for each species. An updated key to the Chinese species of the subgenus Parapullus is given. A catalogue to all known species of this subgenus is also presented.

Key Words

Coccinellidae, Scymnus (Parapullus), taxonomy, new species, distribution, catalogue, China

Introduction

The subgenus Scymnus (Parapullus) was created by Yang (1978), with type species Scymnus (Parapullus) secula Yang, 1978 described from Taiwan. The distinguished characters includes: abdominal postcoxal lines distinctly incomplete laterally, antennae composed of ten antennomeres, parameres of the tegmen usually with two groups of long setae inserted in different directions.

Parapullus is a small subgenus of Scymnus, currently comprising of 12 described species worldwide and mainly distributed in the Old World (Yang 1978, Pang and Yu 1993, Yu et al. 2000, Chen et al. 2012). In China, eight species have been documented prior to the present work (Chen et al. 2012). In present study examination of ladybird specimens newly collected from various parts of China was done together with coccinellid collection of South China Agricultural University revealing eight new species belonging to subgenus Parapullus and reported herein.

In this paper, eight new species are described and illustrated in detail, and a key to the Chinese species of the subgenus Parapullus is updated. Maps of the distribution of the species occurring in China are given. A catalogue to the worldwide species of this subgenus is also presented.

Material and methods

Measurements were made using a micrometer attached to a dissecting microscope as follows: total length (TL), from apical margin of clypeus to apex of elytra; total width (TW), across both elytra at widest part; total height (TH), at highest part of elytra; elytral length (EL), along suture from base to apex including scutellum; elytral width (EW), equal to TW; pronotal length (PL), from the middle of anterior margin to the base of pronotum; pronotal width (PW), at widest part; head width (HW), at widest part including eyes.

External morphology was observed with a dissecting stereoscope (SteREO Discovery V20). Male and female genitalia were dissected, cleared in 10% solution of NaOH by boiling for several minutes, and examined on slides with an Olympus BX51 compound microscope. After examination, the genitalia were transferred to a small card covered with neutral balsam and pinned beneath the specimen. Photographs of the whole beetles and their genitalia were executed on digital cameras (Coolsnap-Procf & CRI Micro*Color and AxioCam HRc) and composite images generated with IMAGE-PRO PLUS 5.1 and AXIO VISION REL. 4.8 softwares. The final plates were prepared using ADOBE PHOTOSHOP CS 8.0.

Morphological terminology use in this paper follows Ślipiński (2007) and Ślipiński and Tomaszewska (2010). Type specimens designated in the present paper are deposited in the Department of Entomology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China (SCAU).

Taxonomy

Scymnus (Parapullus) hastatus sp. n.

Figs 1, 9

Diagnosis

This species is easily confused with several species having unicolourous reddish brown body in this subgenus, but can be recognized by the stout penis guide with a hook-like appendage at apex in lateral view (Fig. 1h).

Figure 1.

Scymnus (Parapullus) hastatus sp. n.: a dorsal view; b anterior view; c lateral view; d abdomen; e penis; f apex of penis; g tegmen, ventral view; h tegmen, lateral view. Scale bars: a–c 0.5 mm, d 0.2 mm, e–h 0.1 mm.

Description

TL: 2.31–2.43 mm, TW: 1.53–1.67 mm, TH: 0.98–1.04 mm, TL/TW: 1.46–1.51, PL/PW: 0.56–0.57, EL/EW: 1.13–1.16, HW/PW: 0.59–0.62, PW/EW: 0.73–0.74.

Body elongate oval, moderately convex, entirely reddish brown, dorsum covered with white pubescence (Fig. 1a–c).

Head with fine frontal punctures, as large as eye facets, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Eyes densely faceted, interocular distance 0.51 times head width. Pronotal punctures as large as those on frons, 2.0–3.0 diameters apart. Surface of elytra with punctures larger than those on pronotum, separated by 2.5–3.0 diameters. Prosternal process trapezoidal, 2 times as long as its width at base; with lateral carinae distinct, extending to anterior margin of prosternum, distinctly convergent anteriorly. Abdominal postcoxal lines weakly recurved and distinctly incomplete laterally (Fig. 1d), reaching 6/7 length of abdominal ventrite 1, area enclosed by lines coarsely punctate, broadly smooth along line. Abdominal ventrite 5 in male with apex truncate.

Male genitalia: penis stout, unevenly sinuated (Fig. 1e). Penis capsule highly sclerotized with small inner arm and large outer arm (Fig. 1e). Apex of penis strongly curved with distinctly membranous appendage (Fig. 1f). Tegmen extremely stout (Fig. 1g–h) with penis guide narrowest at base, gradually expanding to a spade-like apex bearing with a digitations in ventral view (Fig. 1g); in lateral view, penis guide strongly raised at middle with a hook-like appendage at apex (Fig. 1h). Parameres slender with rounded apex, slightly longer than penis guide, densely covered with two groups of long setae at apices (Fig. 1h).

Female unknown.

Type materials

Holotype: male, No. SCAU (E) 11346, China: Gansu: Dongshan, Xinglongshan National Nature Reserve, Yuzhong County, Lanzhou City, 35°47.83’N, 104°3.93’E, ca 2300 m, 3. VIII. 2007, Liang JB leg. Paratypes (3): 3♂ with same data as holotype.

Distribution

China (Gansu).

Etymology

The species name is derived from the Latin adjective hastatus referring to its penis guide with halberd-like apex in ventral view.

Scymnus (Parapullus) baxianshanensis sp. n.

Figs 2, 9

Diagnosis

This species is most similar to Scymnus (Parapullus) alishanensis Pang & Yu, 1993 in general appearance and male genitalia, but can be distinguished from it by having parameres as long as half length of penis guide (Fig. 2h) and penis guide constricted at middle part in ventral view (Fig. 2g). In S. (P.) alishanensis, its parameres are longer than half length of penis guide and penis guide constricted near middle part in ventral view.

Figure 2.

Scymnus (Parapullus) baxianshanensis sp. n.: a dorsal view; b anterior view; c lateral view; d abdomen; e penis; f apex of penis; g tegmen, ventral view; h tegmen, lateral view. Scale bars: a–c 0.5 mm, d 0.2 mm, e–h 0.1 mm.

Description

TL: 2.20–2.48 mm, TW: 1.60–1.71 mm, TH: 1.06–1.18 mm, TL/TW: 1.38–1.45, PL/PW: 0.54–0.55, EL/EW: 1.06–1.09, HW/PW: 0.59–0.60, PW/EW: 0.70–0.75.

Body elongate oval, moderately convex, entirely reddish brown, dorsum covered with white pubescence (Fig. 2a–c).

Head with fine frontal punctures, slightly smaller than eye facets, 0.5–1.0 diameter apart. Eyes densely faceted, interocular distance 0.49 times head width. Pronotal punctures larger than those on frons, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Surface of elytra with punctures much larger than those on pronotum, separated by 1.0–2.0 diameters. Prosternal process trapezoidal, 2 times as long as its width at base; with lateral carinae distinct, extending to anterior margin of prosternum, slightly convergent anteriorly. Abdominal postcoxal lines weakly recurved and distinctly incomplete laterally (Fig. 2d), reaching 6/7 length of abdominal ventrite 1, area enclosed by lines finely punctate, narrowly smooth along line. Abdominal ventrite 5 in both sexes with apex truncate.

Male genitalia: penis stout (Fig. 2e). Penis capsule deeply emarginated medially with small inner arm and large outer arm. Apex of penis slender, forming a hook-shaped (Fig. 2f). Tegmen stout (Figs 2g–h) with penis guide slightly constricted at middle part, expanding toward apex, then tapering abruptly to blunt apex in ventral view (Fig. 2g). Parameres narrow, as long as half length of penis guide, densely covered with two groups of long setae at apices (Fig. 2h).

Female similar to male except for sexual characters.

Type materials

Holotype: male, No. SCAU (E) 11532, China: Tianjin: Baxianshan National Nature Reserve, Ji County, 40°11.27’N, 117°33.19’E, ca 500 m, 14. VII. 2011, Chen XS leg. Paratypes (3): 1♂2♀ with same data as holotype.

Distribution

China (Tianjin).

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to its type locality, Baxianshan National Nature Reserve, Tianjin.

Scymnus (Parapullus) laojielingensis sp. n.

Figs 3, 10

Diagnosis

This species is similar to Scymnus (Parapullus) parallelicus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012 in general appearance and male genitalia, but can be distinguished from it by having strongly sinuated apex of penis with membranous appendage (Fig. 3f), the apical 1/4 length of parameres covered with several long setae at inner sides in lateral view (Fig. 3h), and the area enclosed by the abdominal postcoxal lines with coarse punctures (Fig. 3d).

Figure 3.

Scymnus (Parapullus) laojielingensis sp. n.: a dorsal view; b anterior view; c lateral view; d abdomen; e penis; f apex of penis; g tegmen, ventral view; h tegmen, lateral view. Scale bars: a–c 0.5 mm, d 0.2 mm, e–h 0.1 mm.

Description

TL: 2.21–2.38 mm, TW: 1.58–1.71 mm, TH: 1.01–1.16 mm, TL/TW: 1.39–1.40, PL/PW: 0.51–0.52, EL/EW: 1.08–1.12, HW/PW: 0.56, PW/EW: 0.72.

Body elongate oval, moderately convex, entirely reddish brown, dorsum covered with white pubescence (Fig. 3a–c).

Head with fine frontal punctures, as large as eye facets, 0.5–1.0 diameter apart. Eyes densely faceted, interocular distance 0.47 times head width. Pronotal punctures similar to those on frons, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Surface of elytra with punctures larger than those on pronotum, separated by 2.0–3.0 diameters. Prosternal process trapezoidal, 2.5 times as long as its width at base; with lateral carinae distinct, extending to anterior margin of prosternum, distinctly convergent anteriorly. Abdominal postcoxal lines weakly recurved and distinctly incomplete laterally (Fig. 3d), reaching 5/6 length of abdominal ventrite 1, area enclosed by lines coarsely punctate, narrowly smooth along line. Abdominal ventrite 5 in male with apex rounded.

Male genitalia: penis stout (Fig. 3e). Penis capsule with small inner arm and large outer arm. Apex of penis strongly sinuated with membranous appendage (Fig. 3f). Tegmen stout (Fig. 3g–h) with penis guide with parallel sides from base to 3/4 length, then tapering gradually to blunt apex in ventral view (Fig. 3g) and its apex slightly curved outwardly in lateral view (Fig. 3h). Parameres longer than half length of penis guide, densely covered with a group of long setae at apices, and its apical 1/4 length covered with several stout setae at inner sides (Fig. 3h).

Female externally similar to male but with abdominal ventrite 5 truncate apically.

Type materials

Holotype: male, No. SCAU (E) 11534, China: Henan: Laojieling National Nature Reserve, Xixia County, Nanyang City, 33°37.63’N, 111°45.85’E, ca 1400 m, 9. VII. 2009, Chen XS leg. Paratypes (3): 1♂2♀ with same data as holotype.

Distribution

China (Henan).

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to its type locality, Laojieling National Nature Reserve, Henan Province.

Scymnus (Parapullus) annuliformis sp. n.

Figs 4, 10

Diagnosis

This species is similar to Scymnus (Parapullus) parallelicus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012 in general appearance and male genitalia, but can be separated from it by having slender, ring shaped apex of penis (Fig. 4f) and the abdominal postcoxal lines strongly recurved toward base of ventrite (Fig. 4d). It also resembles Scymnus (Parapullus) malleatus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012, particularly the ring shaped apex of penis, but can be recognized from it by having narrow and short parameres (Fig. 4h) and the different shape of penis capsule.

Figure 4.

Scymnus (Parapullus) annuliformis sp. n.: a dorsal view; b anterior view; c lateral view; d abdomen; e penis; f apex of penis; g tegmen, ventral view; h tegmen, lateral view. Scale bars: a–c 0.5 mm, d 0.2 mm, e–h 0.1 mm.

Description

TL: 2.28–2.34 mm, TW: 1.58–1.71 mm, TH: 1.06–1.15 mm, TL/TW: 1.37–1.44, PL/PW: 0.51–0.53, EL/EW: 1.07–1.13, HW/PW: 0.60–0.61, PW/EW: 0.67–0.71.

Body oval, moderately convex, entirely reddish brown, dorsum covered with white pubescence (Fig. 4a–c).

Head with fine frontal punctures, as large as eye facets, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Eyes densely faceted, interocular distance 0.49 times head width. Pronotal punctures larger than those on frons, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Surface of elytra with punctures larger than those on pronotum, separated by 2.0–3.0 diameters. Prosternal process trapezoidal, 2.5 times as long as its width at base; with lateral carinae distinct, extending to anterior margin of prosternum, slightly convergent anteriorly. Abdominal postcoxal lines strongly recurved and distinctly incomplete laterally (Fig. 4d), reaching 5/6 length of abdominal ventrite 1, area enclosed by lines finely punctate, broadly smooth along line. Abdominal ventrite 5 in both sexes with apex truncate.

Male genitalia: penis moderately stout (Fig. 4e). Penis capsule with small inner arm and large outer arm. Apex of penis slender, ring shaped (Fig. 4f). Tegmen stout (Fig. 4g–h) with penis guide parallel sided from base to 3/4 length, then tapering gradually to blunt apex in ventral view (Fig. 4g). Parameres stout with obliquely truncate apex, longer than half length of penis guide, densely covered with two groups of long setae at apices (Fig. 4h).

Female similar to male except for sexual characters.

Type materials

Holotype: male, No. SCAU (E) 11527, China: Anhui: Hongshan, Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, Yuexi County, 31°0.85’N, 116°8.67’E, ca 800 m, 30. IX. 2010, Wang XM leg. Paratypes (9): Anhui: 1♂ with same data as holotype. 1♂, Yaoluoping National Nature Reserve, Yuexi County, 30°58.95’N, 116°4.83’E, ca 1000 m, 28. IX. 2010, Li WJ leg. Tibet: 1♀, Cibagou National Nature Reserve, Chayu County, 28°33.69’N, 97°5.10’E, ca 2000 m, 13. X. 2007, Chen XS leg. 2♀, Xiachayu Town, Chayu County, 28°30.04’N, 97°0.84’E, ca 1800 m, 14. X. 2007, Chen XS leg. 1♂, Xiayadong Village, Yadong County, 28°29.29’N, 97°1.36’E, ca 2800 m, 29-30. IX. 2009, Chen XS leg. 1♀, Motuo County, Linzhi City, 29°19.30’N, 95°18.33’E, ca 760 m, 17. X. 2009, Chen XS leg. 1♀, Lebu Village, Cuona County, 27°48.63’N, 91°44.98’E, ca 2400 m, 24. X. 2011, Li WJ leg. 1♂, Mama Village, Cuona County, 27°47.44’N, 91°46.56’E, ca 2800 m, 25. X. 2011, Huo LZ leg.

Distribution

China (Anhui, Tibet).

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to its penis with ring shaped apex.

Scymnus (Parapullus) papillatus sp. n.

Figs 5, 11

Diagnosis

This species is similar to Scymnus (Parapullus) solus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012 in general appearance and male genitalia, but can be separated from it by having a papilla bearing a stout seta at the apical 1/3 length of paramere (Fig. 5h).

Figure 5.

Scymnus (Parapullus) papillatus sp. n.: a dorsal view; b anterior view; c lateral view; d abdomen; e penis; f apex of penis; g tegmen, ventral view; h tegmen, lateral view. Scale bars: a–c 0.5 mm, d 0.2 mm, e–h 0.1 mm.

Description

TL: 1.98–2.36 mm, TW: 1.39–1.66 mm, TH: 0.92–1.09 mm, TL/TW: 1.42, PL/PW: 0.50–0.55, EL/EW: 1.09–1.12, HW/PW: 0.59–0.60, PW/EW: 0.70–0.73.

Body elongate oval, moderately convex, dorsum covered with white pubescence (Fig. 5a–c). Head, antennae and mouthparts brown. Pronotum dark brown. Scutellum black. Elytra black with apical 1/4 brown. Prothoracic hypomeron and prosternum brown. Mesoventrite, metaventrite and elytral epipleura black. Legs brown.

Head with fine frontal punctures, as large as eye facets, 0.5–1.0 diameter apart. Eyes densely faceted, interocular distance 0.50 times head width. Pronotal punctures larger than those on frons, 1.5–3.0 diameters apart. Surface of elytra with punctures as large as those on pronotum, separated by 1.0–2.0 diameters. Prosternal process trapezoidal, 2.3 times as long as its width at base; with lateral carinae distinct, extending to anterior margin of prosternum, distinctly convergent anteriorly. Abdominal postcoxal lines weakly recurved and distinctly incomplete laterally (Fig. 5d), nearly extending to posterior margins of abdominal ventrite 1, area enclosed by lines finely punctate, narrowly smooth along line. Abdominal ventrite 5 in male with apex truncate.

Male genitalia: penis stout and long (Fig. 5e). Penis capsule with outer arm large and inner arm strongly curved. Apex of penis unevenly curved, forming a large hook (Fig. 5f). Tegmen stout (Fig. 5g–h) with penis guide narrowest at base, expanding toward apex, then tapering abruptly to blunt apex in ventral view (Fig. 5g). Parameres obliquely truncated apically, longer than half length of penis guide, densely covered with a group of long setae at apices, and its apical 1/3 length with a papilla bearing a stout seta on inner side (Fig. 5h).

Female externally similar to male but with abdominal ventrite 5 rounded apically.

Type materials

Holotype: male, No. 20050319043, China: Guangdong: Xiaohuangshan, Nanling National Nature Reserve, Shaoguan City, 24°54.76’N, 113°2.83’E, ca 800 m, 1. X. 2004, Ren SX leg. Paratypes (12): Guangdong: 1♂ with same data as holotype except “Chen JJ leg”. Hunan: 1♂, Mangshan National Nature Reserve, Yizhang County, 24°58.83’N, 112°53.14’E, ca 700 m, 2. X. 2004, Ren SX leg. Tianjin: 3♂6♀, Baxianshan National Nature Reserve, Ji County, 40°11.27’N, 117°33.19’E, ca 500 m, 14. VII. 2011, Chen XS leg. Shanxi: 1♂, Lishan National Nature Reserve, Yuanqu County, 35°28.39’N, 112°9.45’E, ca 1200 m, 3. VIII. 2011, Chen XS leg.

Distribution

China (Shanxi, Tianjin, Hunan, Guangdong).

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to its paramere with a papilla on the inner side of the apical 1/3 length.

Scymnus (Parapullus) dichotomus sp. n.

Figs 6, 11

Diagnosis

This species is similar to Scymnus (Parapullus) aduncatus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012 in general appearance, but can be distinguished from it by having robust basal part of penis guide in lateral view (Fig. 6h) and the blunt apex in lateral view (Fig. 6g).

Figure 6.

Scymnus (Parapullus) dichotomus sp. n.: a dorsal view; b anterior view; c lateral view; d abdomen; e penis; f apex of penis; g tegmen, ventral view; h tegmen, lateral view. Scale bars: a–c 0.5 mm, d 0.2 mm, e–h 0.1 mm.

Description

TL: 2.16 mm, TW: 1.46 mm, TH: 0.97 mm, TL/TW: 1.48, PL/PW: 0.52, EL/EW: 1.14, HW/PW: 0.63, PW/EW: 0.71.

Body elongate oval, moderately convex, dorsum covered with white pubescence (Figs 6a–c). Head, antennae and mouthparts brown. Pronotum yellowish brown. Scutellum black. Elytra black with apical 1/6 yellowish brown. Prothoracic hypomeron and prosternum yellowish brown. Mesoventrite, metaventrite and elytral epipleura black. Legs brown.

Head with fine frontal punctures, as large as eye facets, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Eyes densely faceted, interocular distance 0.49 times head width. Pronotal punctures larger than those on frons, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Surface of elytra with punctures similar to those on pronotum, separated by 2.0–3.0 diameters. Prosternal process trapezoidal, 2 times as long as its width at base; with lateral carinae distinct, extending to anterior margin of prosternum, slightly convergent anteriorly. Abdominal postcoxal lines weakly recurved and distinctly incomplete laterally (Fig. 6d), reaching 4/5 length of abdominal ventrite 1, area enclosed by lines finely punctate, broadly smooth along line. Abdominal ventrite 5 in male with apex truncate.

Male genitalia: penis slender (Fig. 6e). Penis capsule stout with outer arm large and inner arm strongly curved upwardly. Apex of penis simple (Fig. 6f). Tegmen stout (Figs 6g–h) with penis guide narrowest at base, expanding toward apex, then tapering abruptly to blunt apex in ventral view (Fig. 6g) and strongly curved outwardly in lateral view (Fig. 6h). Parameres slightly constricted at base, distinctly shorter than penis guide, densely covered with two groups of long setae at apices (Fig. 6h).

Female unknown.

Type material

Holotype: male, No. SCAU (E) 11388, China: Yunnan: Xujiaba, Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve, Jingdong County, 24°32.77’N, 101°01.69’E, ca 2500 m, 17. VIII. 2013, Chen XS leg.

Distribution

China (Yunnan).

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to its apex of paramere densely covered with two groups of long setae.

Scymnus (Parapullus) shenmuensis sp. n.

Figs 7, 12

Diagnosis

This species is similar to Scymnus (Parapullus) secula Yang, 1978 in general appearance and male genitalia, but can be separated from it by the brown pronotum with a large black marking (Fig. 7a–b) and the apex of penis stout, hook-shaped (Fig. 7f).

Figure 7.

Scymnus (Parapullus) shenmuensis sp. n.: a dorsal view; b anterior view; c lateral view; d abdomen; e penis; f apex of penis; g tegmen, ventral view; h tegmen, lateral view. Scale bars: a–c 0.5 mm, d 0.2 mm, e–h 0.1 mm.

Description

TL: 2.18 mm, TW: 1.46 mm, TH: 0.98 mm, TL/TW: 1.49, PL/PW: 0.46, EL/EW: 1.20, HW/PW: 0.57, PW/EW: 0.77.

Body elongate oval, slightly convex, dorsum covered with white pubescence (Figs 7a–c). Head, antennae and mouthparts dark brown. Pronotum brown with a large black marking. Scutellum black. Elytra black with apical 1/6 yellowish brown. Prothoracic hypomeron and prosternum brown. Mesoventrite, metaventrite and elytral epipleura black. Legs brown.

Head with fine frontal punctures, slightly larger than eye facets, 0.5–1.0 diameter apart. Eyes densely faceted, interocular distance 0.50 times head width. Pronotal punctures as large as those on frons, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Surface of elytra with punctures larger than those on pronotum, separated by 2.0–3.0 diameters. Prosternal process trapezoidal, 2 times as long as its width at base; with lateral carinae distinct, extending to anterior margin of prosternum, slightly convergent anteriorly. Abdominal postcoxal lines strongly recurved and distinctly incomplete laterally (Fig. 7d), reaching 5/6 length of abdominal ventrite 1, area enclosed by lines irregularly punctate, narrowly smooth along line. Abdominal ventrite 5 in male with apical margin shallowly emarginated medially.

Male genitalia: penis stout (Fig. 7e). Penis capsule with small inner arm and large outer arm. Apex of penis stout with membranous appendage, hook-shaped (Fig. 7f). Tegmen stout (Figs 7g–h) with penis guide narrowest at base, expanding toward apex, then tapering abruptly to blunt apex in ventral view (Fig. 7g) and its apex slightly curved outwardly in lateral view (Fig. 7h). Parameres slightly curved at base, distinctly shorter than penis guide, densely covered with two groups of long setae at apices (Fig. 7h).

Female unknown.

Type material

Holotype: male, No. SCAU (E) 11455, China: Taiwan: Shenmu Railway Station, Alishan Mountains, Jiayi County, 23°31.12’N, 120°48.37’E, ca 2200 m, 23. X. 2012, Chen XS leg.

Distribution

China (Taiwan).

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to its type locality, Shenmu Railway Station in Alishan Mountains, Taiwan.

Scymnus (Parapullus) yanzigouensis sp. n.

Figs 8, 12

Diagnosis

This species is similar to Scymnus (Parapullus) nanlingicus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012 in general appearance and male genitalia, but can be separated from it by having broad area enclosed by abdominal postcoxal lines (Fig. 8d) and the parameres narrowest at base, expanding toward apex in lateral view (Fig. 8h).

Figure 8.

Scymnus (Parapullus) yanzigouensis sp. n.: a dorsal view; b anterior view; c lateral view; d abdomen; e penis; f apex of penis; g tegmen, ventral view; h tegmen, lateral view. Scale bars: a–c 0.5 mm, d 0.2 mm, e–h 0.1 mm.

Description

TL: 2.20–2.42 mm, TW: 1.52–1.67 mm, TH: 0.99–1.05 mm, TL/TW: 1.45, PL/PW: 0.51, EL/EW: 1.13–1.14, HW/PW: 0.56–0.58, PW/EW: 0.73–0.74.

Body oval, moderately convex, dorsum covered with white pubescence (Fig. 8a–c). Head, antennae and mouthparts brown. Pronotum yellowish brown. Scutellum dark brown. Elytra black with apical 1/4 yellowish brown. Prothoracic hypomeron and prosternum yellowish brown. Mesoventrite, metaventrite and elytral epipleura black. Legs brown.

Head with fine frontal punctures, as large as eye facets, 0.5–1.0 diameters apart. Eyes densely faceted, interocular distance 0.47 times head width. Pronotal punctures similar to those on frons, 1.0–2.0 diameters apart. Surface of elytra with punctures larger than those on pronotum, separated by 2.0–3.0 diameters. Prosternal process rectangular, 2 times as long as its width at base; with lateral carinae distinct, parallel, extending to anterior margin of prosternum. Abdominal postcoxal lines strongly recurved and distinctly incomplete laterally (Fig. 8d), reaching 7/8 length of abdominal ventrite 1, area enclosed by lines irregularly punctate, broadly smooth along line. Abdominal ventrite 5 in male with apex truncate.

Male genitalia: penis stout (Fig. 8e). Penis capsule with outer arm stout and inner arm strongly curved, hook-shaped. Apex of penis simple (Fig. 8f). Tegmen stout (Fig. 8g–h) with penis guide parallel sided from base to 4/5 length, then tapering abruptly to blunt apex in ventral view (Fig. 8g). Parameres narrowest at base, expanding toward apex, distinctly shorter than penis guide, densely covered with two groups of long setae at apices (Fig. 8h).

Female unknown.

Type materials

Holotype: male, No. SCAU (E) 11531, China: Sichuan: Yanzigou, Gonggashan National Nature Reserve, Luding County, 29°41.92’N, 102°0.22’E, ca 2500 m, 28. IX. 2007, Chen XS leg. Paratypes (1): 1♂ with same data as holotype.

Distribution

China (Sichuan).

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to its type locality, Yanzigou Scenic Spots, Gonggashan National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province.

Figure 9.

Distribution map. Scymnus (Parapullus) hastatus sp. n. (★); Scymnus (Parapullus) tsugae Yu & Yao (▲); Scymnus (Parapullus) alishanensis Pang & Yu (●); Scymnus (Parapullus) baxianshanensis sp. n. (■).

Figure 10.

Distribution map. Scymnus (Parapullus) laojielingensis sp. n. (●); Scymnus (Parapullus) parallelicus Chen, Ren & Wang (▲); Scymnus (Parapullus) annuliformis sp. n. (★); Scymnus (Parapullus) malleatus Chen, Ren & Wang (■).

Figure 11.

Distribution map. Scymnus (Parapullus) papillatus sp. n. (★); Scymnus (Parapullus) solus Chen, Ren & Wang (▲); Scymnus (Parapullus) aduncatus Chen, Ren & Wang (●); Scymnus (Parapullus) dichotomus sp. n. (■).

Figure 12.

Distribution map. Scymnus (Parapullus) shenmuensis sp. n. (●); Scymnus (Parapullus) secula Yang (▲); Scymnus (Parapullus) nanlingicus Chen, Ren & Wang (★); Scymnus (Parapullus) yanzigouensis sp. n. (■).

Key to the Chinese species of the subgenus Scymnus (Parapullus) Yang

1 Elytra reddish brown 2
Elytra black 9
2 Penis guide not with parallel sided in ventral view 3
Penis guide with parallel sided in ventral view 6
3 Parameres slender, slightly longer than penis guide (Fig. 1h); penis guide not constricted medially; apex of penis guide with hook-like appendage in lateral view (Fig. 1h) S. (P.) hastatus sp. n.
Parameres stout, distinctly shorter than penis guide; penis guide constricted medially 4
4 Penis capsule not emarginated medially; parameres broad, distinctly expanding toward apex S. (P.) tsugae Yu & Yao
Penis capsule deeply emarginated medially 5
5 Parameres as long as 3/4 length of penis guide S. (P.) alishanensis Pang & Yu
Parameres as long as 1/2 length of penis guide (Fig. 2h) S. (P.) baxianshanensis sp. n.
6 Apex of penis stout with membranous appendage (Fig. 3f) S. (P.) laojielingensis sp. n.
Apex of penis slender without membranous appendage 7
7 Prosternal process rectangular S. (P.) parallelicus Chen, Ren & Wang
Prosternal process trapezoidal 8
8 Abdominal postcoxal lines strongly recurved laterally (Fig. 4d); parameres narrow in lateral view (Fig. 4h) S. (P.) annuliformis sp. n.
Abdominal postcoxal lines weakly recurved laterally; parameres broad in lateral view S. (P.) malleatus Chen, Ren & Wang
9 Apex of parameres densely covered with one group of setae 10
Apex of parameres densely covered with two groups of setae 11
10 On the inner side of paramere with a papilla bearing a stout seta at apical 1/3 length (Fig. 5h) S. (P.) papillatus sp. n.
On the inner side of paramere smooth, not with a papilla appendage S. (P.) solus Chen, Ren & Wang
11 Penis guide strongly curved in lateral view 12
Penis guide straight or with apex slightly curved outwardly 13
12 Prosternal process with lateral carinae parallel S. (P.) aduncatus Chen, Ren & Wang
Prosternal process with lateral carinae convergent anteriorly S. (P.) dichotomus sp. n.
13 Pronotum brown with a large black marking (Fig. 7a) S. (P.) shenmuensis sp. n.
Pronotum entirely brown 14
14 Penis capsule with outer arm narrow, sub-quadrate S. (P.) secula Yang
Penis capsule with outer arm broad, truncate 15
15 Area enclosed by abdominal postcoxal lines relatively narrow S. (P.) nanlingicus Chen, Ren & Wang
Area enclosed by abdominal postcoxal lines relatively broad (Fig. 8d) S. (P.) yanzigouensis sp. n.

Catalogue of the subgenus Scymnus (Parapullus) Yang, 1978

Scymnus (Parapullus) abietis (Paykull, 1798)

Coccinella abietis Paykull, 1798: 154.

Scymnus abietis: Mulsant 1850: 975; Weise 1879: 142; Korschefsky 1931: 117; Gourreau 1974: 109.

Scymnus semilimbatus Fleischer, 1927: 260.

Scymnus (Scymnus) abietis: Bielawski 1968: 22; 1975: 249; Soares et al. 2003: 27.

Scymnus (Parapullus) abietis: Pang and Yu 1993: 228; Kovář 2007: 584; Coutanceau 2009: 5; Chen et al. 2012: 22; Borowski 2015: 91.

Distribution. Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Belarus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, Serbia and Montenegro, Mongolia.

Scymnus (Parapullus) aduncatus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012

Scymnus (Parapullus) aduncatus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012: 30.

Distribution. China (Ningxia).

Scymnus (Parapullus) alishanensis Pang & Yu, 1993

Scymnus (Parapullus) alishanensis Pang & Yu, 1993: 230; Yu et al. 2000: 168; Pang et al. 2004: 82; Kovář 2007: 584; Ren et al. 2009: 68; Chen et al. 2012: 26.

Distribution. China (Taiwan).

Scymnus (Parapullus) annuliformis sp. n.

Distribution. China (Anhui, Tibet).

Scymnus (Parapullus) baxianshanensis sp. n.

Distribution. China (Tianjin).

Scymnus (Parapullus) coosi Hatch, 1961

Scymnus (Scymnus) coosi Hatch, 1961: 152. Gordon 1976: 20; 1985: 120.

Scymnus (Parapullus) coosi: Pang and Yu 1993: 229; Chen et al. 2012: 22.

Distribution. USA.

Scymnus (Parapullus) dichotomus sp. n.

Distribution. China (Yunnan).

Scymnus (Parapullus) difficilis Casey, 1899

Scymnus (Scymnus) difficilis Casey, 1899: 154; Leng 1920: 214; Korschefsky 1931: 157; Gordon 1976: 19; 1985: 120.

Scymnus (Parapullus) difficilis: Pang and Yu 1993: 229; Chen et al. 22.

Distribution. USA.

Scymnus (Parapullus) hastatus sp. n.

Distribution. China (Gansu).

Scymnus (Parapullus) laojielingensis sp. n.

Distribution. China (Henan).

Scymnus (Parapullus) malleatus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012

Scymnus (Parapullus) malleatus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012: 24.

Distribution. China (Ningxia).

Scymnus (Parapullus) nanlingicus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012

Scymnus (Parapullus) nanlingicus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012: 32.

Distribution. China (Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guangxi).

Scymnus (Parapullus) nebulosus LeConte, 1852

Scymnus nebulosus LeConte, 1852: 137; Crotch 1874a: 262; Horn 1895: 95; Steinweden 1929: 29.

Scymnus (Scymnus) nebulosus: Casey 1899: 154; Leng 1920: 214; Korschefsky 1931: 163; Chapin 1974: 22; Gordon 1976: 13; 1985: 119.

Scymnus infuscatus Boheman, 1859: 208; Leng 1920: 214; Korschefsky 1931: 160; Gordon 1976: 15; 1985: 119. Synonymized by Gordon 1976: 15.

Scymnus phelpsii Crotch, 1874b: 77; Horn 1895: 96; Gordon 1976: 15; 1985: 120. Synonymized by Gordon 1976: 15.

Scymnus (Scymnus) phelpsii: Casey 1899: 154; Leng 1920: 214; Korschefsky 1931: 165; Malkin 1943: 194; Hatch 1961: 153; Belicek 1976: 302; Gordon 1976: 15; 1985: 120.

Scymnus (Scymnus) harneyi Hatch, 1961: 152; Gordon 1976: 15; 1985: 120. Synonymized by Gordon 1976: 15.

Scymnus (Parapullus) nebulosus: Pang and Yu 1993: 229; Chen et al. 2012: 22.

Distribution. Canada, USA.

Scymnus (Parapullus) papillatus sp. n.

Distribution. China (Shanxi, Tianjin, Hunan, Guangdong).

Scymnus (Parapullus) parallelicus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012

Scymnus (Parapullus) parallelicus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012: 24.

Distribution. China (Gansu).

Scymnus (Parapullus) secula Yang, 1978

Scymnus (Parapullus) secula Yang, 1978: 27; Pang and Yu 1993: 229; Yu et al. 2000: 167; Pang et al. 2004: 82; Kovář 2007: 584; Ren et al. 2009: 68; Chen et al. 2012: 32.

Distribution. China (Taiwan).

Scymnus (Parapullus) shenmuensis sp. n.

Distribution. China (Taiwan).

Scymnus (Parapullus) solus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012

Scymnus (Parapullus) solus Chen, Ren & Wang, 2012: 29.

Distribution. China (Gansu, Henan, Guangxi).

Scymnus (Parapullus) tsugae Yu & Yao, 2000

Scymnus (Parapullus) tsugae Yu & Yao in Yu et al. 2000: 168; Pang et al. 2004: 82; Kovář 2007: 584; Chen et al. 2012: 29.

Distribution. China (Yunnan).

Scymnus (Parapullus) yanzigouensis sp. n.

Distribution. China (Sichuan).

Acknowledgements

We are deeply indebted to Mr. Rashid Azad (South China Agricultural University, China), who helped to check the English text. We are also grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive and valuable comments and suggestions on our manuscript. The present study was supported by the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (2014A030310493), the Science and Technology Program of Guangzhou, China (151800033) and the Science and Technology Partnership Program, Ministry of Science and Technology of China (KY201402014).

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