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Research Article
Review of the genus Aphanostola Meyrick, 1931 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Anomologinae) with description of 19 new species from the Afrotropical Region
expand article infoOleksiy V. Bidzilya, Wolfram Mey§, David Agassiz|
‡ Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University, Zoological Museum, Kyiv, Ukraine
§ Museum fuer Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany
| The Natural History Museum, London, London, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

New diagnosis of the genus Aphanostola is provided, and its position within Gelechiidae is briefly discussed. 19 species are described from South Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Kenya and Ethiopia: A. acaciae Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. morogorensis Bidzilya, sp. n., A. calderae Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. kenyella Bidzilya & Agassiz, sp. n., A. kruegeri Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. alternella Bidzilya & Agassiz, sp. n., A. antennata Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. rooiklipella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. griseella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. centripunctella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. joannoui Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. namibiensis Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. brandbergensis Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. aarviki Bidzilya, sp. n., A. africanella Bidzilya, Agassiz, & Mey, sp. n., A. emarginata Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. melliferae Bidzilya, Agassiz & Mey, sp. n., A. maxima Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n., A. longicornuta Bidzilya, Agassiz & Mey, sp. n. A key to the species is given based on external characters and the genitalia of both sexes. Adults and genitalia of all species are illustrated.

Key Words

Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae, Aphanostola, new species, taxonomy, host plants, Afrotropical region, Oriental region

Introduction

The genus Aphanostola was originally established for two species: A. atripalpis Meyrick, 1931 (type species) and A. sparsipalpis Meyrick, 1931. Later A. intercepta Meyrick, 1932 was added to this genus. The latter two species are only known from single males without abdomens, therefore their generic assignment with Aphanostola remains rather obscure.

As a result of our study of the Gelechiidae from the Brandberg Massif in Namibia, a number of small-sized specimens that represent a separate group consisting of four species have been discovered. Their genitalia matched in most details to the genitalia of Lanceopenna pentastigma Janse, 1960. It was realized however that L. pentastigma is not congeneric with L. pseudogaleotis Janse, 1950 – the type species of Lanceopenna Janse, 1950, but better fits in genitalia characters to A. atripalpis from India (Bidzilya 2007). In spite of similarity of the male genitalia of A. atripalpis and specimens from the Brandberg the species have not been transferred to Aphanostola because the type specimens of A. atripalpis remained unexamined. They were mentioned in the list of the Gelechiidae from the Brandberg as “Genus 1, spec. 1” – “Genus 1, spec. 4” (Bidzilya 2007).

The recent examination of the holotype and male paratype of A. atripalpis confirmed the assumption that specimens from the Brandberg are indeed congeneric with Aphanostola. Moreover, a number of additional species from this genus have been found in collections of material from southern Africa and other countries of the Afrotropical region since 2007. Some of these species were mentioned as new but not formally described in recent papers (Mey and Kühne 2014; Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 in press). However, we already transferred Lanceopenna pentastigma to the genus Aphanostola (Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 in press).

The aim of the present paper is to describe new species, which were found belonging to Aphanostola. A total of 19 new species are described and an improved and expanded diagnosis of the genus Aphanostola within the subfamily Anomologinae is provided.

Material and methods

The present paper is based mainly on material from Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany (MfN). Additional material has been received from Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum), Pretoria, South Africa (TMSA), Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom (BMNH), Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Norway (NHMO), Landesmuseum für Kärnten, Klagenfurt (LMK) and from the collection of David Agassiz, London, UK (Agassiz coll.) (now deposited in BMNH).

The genitalia slides were prepared according to the “unrolling technique” (Pitkin 1986; Huemer 1988). The descriptive terminology of genitalia structures generally follows Huemer and Karsholt (1999) and Kristensen (2003).

In the paragraph “Material” of the descriptions the localities were arranged geographicly from south-west to north-east and countries are referred to using their current names.

Results

Check-list of the genus Aphanostola

A. acaciae Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. pentastigma (Janse, 1960)

A. morogorensis Bidzilya, sp. n.

A. calderae Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. kenyella Bidzilya & Agassiz, sp. n.

A. kruegeri Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. alternella Bidzilya & Agassiz, sp. n.

A. antennata Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. rooiklipella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. griseella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. centripunctella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. joannoui Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. namibiensis Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. brandbergensis Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. aarviki Bidzilya, sp. n.

A. africanella Bidzilya, Agassiz & Mey, sp. n.

A. emarginata Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. melliferae Bidzilya, Agassiz & Mey, sp. n.

A. maxima Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

A. longicornuta Bidzilya Agassiz & Mey, sp. n.

A. atripalpis Meyrick, 1931

A. sparsipalpis Meyrick, 1931

A. intercepta Meyrick, 1932

Aphanostola Meyrick, 1931

Exotic Microlepidoptera 4: 56

Type-species

Aphanostola atripalpis Meyrick, 1931 (by original designation).

Diagnosis

The genus Aphanostola is defined by the combination of the following characters in the male genitalia (Fig. 40a): phallus usually with basal projection, uncus covered with setae, gnathos long sickle-shaped, valva divided into strongly sclerotized basal part and weakly sclerotized distal part, sacculus strongly curved inwardly, the posterior margin of the vinculum with medial incision and more or less developed projections. The female genitalia (Fig. 40b) are rather variable, but a weakly sclerotized unmodified sternite VIII, moderately thick apophyses anteriores and a usually well defined antrum are the characteristic features of the genus. The presence of the basal projection of the phallus can be considered as a presumed autapomorphy of Aphanostola. The lack of this character in some species seems to be a secondary reduction.

Remarks

The male genitalia of Aphanostola display similarity to the genitalia of Leuronoma Meyrick, 1918 and Platyphala Janse, 1951. These genera share such characters as a weakly sclerotized distal portion of the valva, the sacculus strongly curved inwardly and the inner margin of the valva with tendency to form a thorn. The adults of all three genera are characterized by sexual dimorphism in the width of the antenna. The monotypic genus Platyphala seems to be more closely related to Aphanostola in having the phallus with short basal projection, but differs in the prolonged uncus without long setae and the shorter gnathos. The diagnosis of Leuronoma is unclear as the type species (L. chlorotoma Meyrick, 1918) lacks the abdomen and its affiliation with of the other species is rather provisional. Most of the species currently associated with Leuronoma differ from Aphanostola species in the uncus which is deeply divided into two lobes, the reduced saccus and a differently shaped phallus. Aphanostola, Platyphala and Leuronoma along with several unrevised groups of species form a separate branch within the tribe Anomologini (subfamily Anomologinae) remotely related to Aristotelia Hübner, [1825].

Based on the above diagnosis 23 species are considered here to be members of Aphanostola. However, there is a group of still undescribed species which takes an intermediate position among Aphanostola, Leuronoma and Platyphala. It is possible that the current diagnosis of Aphanostola must be expanded and additional species have to be included resulting from future revisions of related genera.

Description

Head smoothly scaled, ocelli absent, grey or brown sometimes white (A. brandbergensis sp. n.). Labial palpus straight or weakly up-curved, segment 2 slightly broader than segment 3, segment 3 acute, about as wide as segment 2; antenna of male slightly thicker and more distinctly ciliated than antenna of female in most of species (A. calderae sp. n., A. longicornuta sp. n., A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. griseella sp. n.), scape without pecten, antennal segments grey to brown with black rings at base.

Thorax grey to brown; wingspan 5.8–10.5 mm; forewing usually pale, grey, or light brown, sometimes whitish or yellowish with brown base of costal margin (A. calderae sp. n., A. morogorensis sp. n., A. brandbergensis sp. n., A. aarviki sp. n.), three diffuse dark spots in cell, margins often mottled with black appearing darker than medial part of wing, some species with additional black spots at base and on ¾ of dorsum (A. morogorensis sp. n.). Hindwing grey, with well developed tornal excavation and pointed tip.

Abdomen

Male tergum VIII sub-rectangular, usually broader than long, strongly edged and weakly emarginated anteriorly; sternum VIII broader than long, posterior margin broadly rounded, anteriolateral corners projected, sometimes strongly. Female segment VII trapezoidal, tergum VIII about twice length of other abdominal segments, sternum VIII three times longer than broad; sternum II of both sexes with pair of venulae, apodemes well developed.

Male genitalia (Fig. 40a). Uncus usually short, broader than long, rounded in A. atripalpis and A. brandbergensis sp. n., posterior margin weakly or distinctly emarginated, covered with strong setae. Gnathos usually long, slender, hook-shaped, curved in middle or at base, distal portion straight, apex pointed. Tegumen sub-rectangular or trapezoidal, about twice as long as broad, anterior margin with deep medial emargination, lateral folds well developed, turned inwardly and connected medially. Valva (cucullus) digitate, distinctly exceeding the apex of uncus, basal portion usually more strongly sclerotized than distal portion, inner margin distinctly edged in basal half, often bears a short thorn or serrated lobe (A. aarviki sp. n.), distal portion densely covered with short hairs, apex more or less inflated, rounded. Sacculus merged on 1/4 -1/2 length with cucullus, turned inwards, differing in shape, usually long, narrow, thorn-shaped (A. calderae sp. n., A. acaciae sp. n., A. griseella sp. n.) or short triangular (A. centripunctella sp. n., A. brandbergensis sp. n.), sometimes broad, beak-shaped (A. joannoui sp. n., A. melliferae sp. n.); sacculus sometimes merged at base with medial thorn on inner margin of valva (A. kenyella sp. n., A. centripunctella sp. n., A. africanella sp. n., A. brandbergensis sp. n., A. namibiensis sp. n.). Vinculum usually broad, posterior margin with short, triangular or broadly rounded medial projections separated by a narrow incision, two additional medial humps or short projections on the posterior margin of the vinculum present in some species (A. morogorensis sp. n., A. calderae sp. n.); sometimes (A. longicornuta sp. n.) additional lateral projections of the posterior margin of the vinculum well developed. Saccus broad, triangular, rounded or narrowly digitate (A. centripunctella sp. n., A. longicornuta sp. n.), exceeding beyond the apex of pedunculus, but sometimes short (A. namibiensis sp. n.) or nearly reduced (A. brandbergensis sp. n.). Phallus a flattened tube, usually slightly but in some cases considerably (A. antennata sp. n.) shorter than tegumen, very long in A. longicornuta sp. n., sub-apical area with small lateral teeth by A. calderae sp. n. and A. acacia sp. n. or with big apical thorn (A. kenyella sp. n., A. brandbergensis sp. n.); vesica may bear very small (A. acaciae sp. n.) or moderately large (A. africanella sp. n.) cornuti, A. longicornuta sp. n. with one very big and numerous small spikes in vesica; a narrow and usually long projection of phallus is developed in most of species; ductus ejaculatorius elongate.

Female genitalia (Fig. 40b). Papilla analis ovate, covered with short hairs; segment VIII sub-rectangular, longer than broad, weakly sclerotized, without modifications except for A. centripunctella sp. n. and A. namibiensis sp. n. with sclerotized patches from the base of apophyses anteriores extending posteriorely to half length of segment VIII. Apophyses anteriores slightly (A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. griseella sp. n.) or more then twice as long as segment VIII, sometimes moderately thick (A. pentastigma, A. brandbergensis sp. n., A. joannoui sp. n.,), apophyses posteriores narrow, twice as long as apophyses anteriores. Antrum elongated (A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. griseella sp. n., A. africanella sp. n.), short and funnel-shaped (A. pentastigma, A. centripunctella sp. n., A. joannoui sp. n., A. antennata sp. n.) or as wrinkled tube (A. longicornuta sp. n.), not developed by the remaining species. Ostium bursae surrounded with sub-ovate (A. longicornuta sp. n.), v-shaped (A. antennata sp. n.), rounded (A. morogorensis sp. n.), sub-rectangular (A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. griseella sp. n.) sclerite or with sclerite of another shape (A. acaciae sp. n., A. centripunctella sp. n.), sometimes sub-ostial area without modification (A. brandbergensis sp. n., A. joannoui sp. n.). Ductus bursae usually slender, moderately short, in exceptional cases very broad with indistinct transition to corpus bursae and with short lateral appendix at 1/3 length (A. acaciae sp. n.), finely papillated in some species (A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. centripunctella sp. n., A. joannoui sp. n.). Corpus bursae globular, pear-shaped or distinctly prolonged (A. brandbergensis sp. n.); signa varying in shape: brush-shaped (A. centripunctella sp. n.), a prolonged sclerite laterally covered with small spikes (A. morogorensis sp. n., A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. griseella sp. n., A. africanella sp. n., A. longicornuta sp. n.), a spinose plate (A. antennata sp. n), reduced by A. acaciae sp. n., A. brandbergensis sp. n., A. joannoui sp. n.; corpus bursae in A. pentastigma covered with numerous teeth and spikes, in A. namibiensis sp. n. with narrow sub-ovate belt consisting of very small spikes.

Distribution

Afrotropical (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia) and Oriental (India) regions.

Biology

A. pentastigma, A. acaciae sp. n., A. africanella sp. n. and A. melliferae sp. n. were reared from various Acacia-species in Kenya (Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 in press). A. atripalpis were bred from Acacia [Senegalia] katechu (L.f) P.J.H. Hurter & Mabb. in India. It is most likely that Acacia s. l. (Fabaceae) is a host plant for most of the Aphanostola-species.

In the southern Africa the adults were observed from late August to early May, up to 2000 m elevation in Auas Mts and Brandberg, easily attracted to light. In East Africa adults fly from August to January up to 1850 m elevation.

Key to adults based on external characters

(Note: A. joannoui sp. n., A. antennata sp. n., A. longicornuta sp. n., A. alternella sp. n. and A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. melliferae sp. n.,. A. africanella sp. n. can hardly be distinguished from each other without examination of the genitalia)

1 Wingspan 9.5–10.5 mm, forewing light brown with brown dots A. maxima sp. n.
Wingspan less than 9.5 mm 2
2 Forewing white with distinct black markings A. acaciae sp. n
Forewing otherwise coloured 3
3 Forewing yellow, black markings large 4
Forewing grey, light brown, cream or light yellow, black markings usually small 5
4 Black spot on ¾ of dorsum large, forewing comparatively narrow, 7.1 mm A. morogorensis sp. n.
Black spot on ¾ small, forewing comparatively broad, 6.2 mm A. aarviki sp. n.
5 Forewing light yellow or cream-white 6
Forewing grey 7
6 Forewing light yellow, costal margin without black irroration, 7.1–7.5 mm A. calderae sp. n.
Forewing cream-white, costal margin with black irrorartion, 5.8–6.1 mm A. brandbergensis sp. n.
7 Forewing with large brown, transverse spot in middle A. centripunctella sp. n.
Forewing without large brown, transverse spot in middle 8
8 Wingspan 8.0–9.1 mm 9
Wingspan less than 8.0 mm 10
9 Forewing black-brown without markings, head brown, 8.0–8.2 mm A. kenyella sp. n.
Forewing grey with rounded black spot in middle, head white, 9.0–9.1 mm A. namibiensis sp. n.
10 Forewing long and narrow, with four black spots in cell and three black spots on costal margin A. pentastigma
Forewing shorter and broader 11
11 Forewing light brown 12
Forewing grey 13
12 Forewing densely mottled with black irroration A. kruegeri sp. n.
Forewing without black irroration A. emarginata sp. n.
13 Forewing uniformly grey A. atripalpis
Forewing with black markings 14
14 Forewing comparatively dark, grey A. joannoui sp. n., A. antennata sp. n., A. longicornuta sp. n., A. alternella sp. n.
Forewing comparatively light grey, with white pattern
15 Forewing uniformly grey except of margins mottled with black A. griseella sp. n.
Forewing with black markings in cell A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. melliferae sp. n., A. africanella sp. n.

Key to male based on genitalia

(Note: The male of A. griseella sp. n. is unknown)

1 Projection of phallus present 2
Projection of phallus absent 13
2 Vesica with one long cornutus, lateral vincular projections very long A. longicornuta sp. n.
Vesica with several small cornuti or without cornutus, lateral vincular projections short or absent 3
3 Phallus as long as or slightly longer than saccus A. antennata sp. n.
Phallus twice as long as saccus 4
4 Projection of phallus very short, reaching 1/5 of its length A. kruegeri sp. n.
Projection of phallus long, reaching at least ¾ of its length 5
5 Tooth on inner margin of valva situated close to sacculus and joined on base 6
Tooth on inner margin of valva situated more distally from sacculus 8
6 Phallus with apical tooth A. kenyella sp. n.
Phallus without apical tooth 7
7 Tooth on inner margin of valva about as long as sacculus A. centripunctella sp. n.
Tooth on inner margin of valva much shorter than valva A. alternella sp. n.
8 Sacculus twice as broad as valva in middle A. joannoui sp. n.
Sacculus as broad or narrower than valva in middle 9
9 Lateral vincular projections large, rounded, phallus strongly pointed apically A. rooiklipella sp. n.
Lateral vincular projections small or absent, phallus not pointed apically or gradually tapered
10 Phallus serrated laterally in distal portion 11
Phallus not serrated in distal portion 12
11 Saccus rounded apically, process of phallus broadened at apex, vesica with small cornuti A. acaciae sp. n.
Saccus pointed apically, process of phallus not broadened at apex, vesica without cornuti A. calderae sp. n.
12 Saccus long, subrectangular, process of phallus arising from 1/3 of its length A. morogorensis sp. n.
Saccus triangular, process of phallus arising from about middle of phallus A. pentastigma
13 Uncus covered with short setae A. atripalpis
Uncus covered with long setae 14
14 Vesica with 7–9 cornuti A. africanella sp. n.
Vesica without cornuti 15
15 Saccus stout, broadly rounded A. melliferae sp. n.
Saccus smaller 16
16 Tegumen broad, trapezoid, sacculus sub-rectangular A. maxima sp. n.
Tegumen narrow, elongate sub-rectangular 17
17 Saccus comparatively long, pointed apically, sacculus very short, hump-shaped A. emarginata sp. n.
Saccus comparatively short, rounded, sacculus longer 18
18 Sacculus narrow, long, uncus longer than broad A. namibiensis sp. n.
Sacculus broader and shorter, uncus broader than long or rounded 19
19 Uncus rounded, sacculus strongly pointed, phallus without apical thorn A. aarviki sp. n.
Uncus heart-shaped, sacculus weakly pointed, phallus with single apical thorn A. brandbergensis sp. n.

Key to female based on genitalia

(Note: The females of A. calderae sp. n., A. kenyella sp. n., A. emarginata sp. n., A. aarviki sp. n., A. maxima sp. n., A. alternella sp. n. are unknown; the female of A. atripalpis has not been examined.)

1 Signum present 2
Signum absent 8
2 Antrum longer than half length of apophyses anteriores 3
Antrum shorter than half length of apophyses anteriores 5
3 Signum a prolonged plate with small teeth A. africanella sp. n.
Sigmum a prolonged plate covered with spikes and with cord inside 4
4 Antrum distinctly longer than apophyses anteriores, subostial sclerite with posterior projection A. rooiklipella sp. n.
Antrum sub-equal in length to apophyses anteriores, subostial sclerite without posterior projection A. griseella sp. n.
5 Signum a large, rounded plate with numerous spikes A. morogorensis sp. n.
Signum of another shape 6
6 Signum brush-shaped, corpus bursae large, rounded; subostial sclerite big, of irregular shape A. centripunctella sp. n.
Signum a weakly curved, narrow plate, corpus elongated; subostial sclerite narrow A. kruegeri sp. n.
7 Ductus bursae coiled, posterior portion weakly wrinkled, signum a prolonged plate with serrated margins A. longicornuta sp. n.
Ductus bursae not coiled and without wrinkles, signum a spinose plate A. antennata sp. n.
8 Ductus bursae with short appendix A. acaciae sp. n.
Ductus bursae without appendix 9
9 Corpus bursae covered with numerous spikes A. pentastigma
Corpus bursae without spikes 10
10 Ductus bursae with sclerotized band A. melliferae sp. n.
Ductus bursae without sclerotized band 11
11 Subostial sclerite absent A. brandbergensis sp. n.
Subostial sclerite present 12
12 Sternum VIII with sclerotized patches arising from base of apophyses anteriores, subostial sclerite digitate A. namibiensis sp. n.
Sternum VIII without sclerotized patches, subostial sclerite a transverse prolonged plate A. joannoui sp. n.

Review of species

Aphanostola acaciae Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 1–3, 41, 42, 65

Genus 1, sp. 1. – Bidzilya 2007: 94, figs 2, 5; pl. 5, figs 2, 3.

Aphanostola sp. 1 – Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 (in press).

Type material

Holotype ♂, [Namibia] 20 km NW Uis, LF, 27.ii.2002 (Turm) (Mey) (gen. slide 101/05, O. Bidzilya) (MfN). Paratypes: 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Namibia, Brandberg, Ugab, LF (MEY), 30.xi.2000, LF (gen. slide 78/05♀; 224/12♂; 575/14♂, O. Bidzilya) 1 ♀, Namibia, 10 km W Brandberg, 28.ii.2002(Turm) (Mey) (gen. slide 73/05, O. Bidzilya); 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Namibia, Omatako Ranch, LF, 22–23.iii.2003 (Mey) (gen. slide 501/14♂, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Namibia, Mile 46, 18 18 S, 19 15 E, 24–26.iii.2003 (Mey); 2 ♂, Namibia, Erichsfelde, 21 35 S, 16 56 E, 19–21.iii.2003 (Mey) (gen. slide 164/15, O. Bidzilya); 2 ♀, Namibia, Waterberg NP, 21–22.xi.2000, LF (Mey); 2 ♂, 2 ♀, Namibia, Namutoni, Etosha Nat. Park, 14–16.xii.1993 (Mey & Ebert); 1 ♀, Namibia, Etosha, Namutoni, 7.xi.1999 (Mey); 2 ♀, Namibia, Namutoni, Etosha NP, 23–25.xi.2000, LF (Mey) (gen. slide 152/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Namibia, Okatjikona, Waterberg Nat. Park, 14–16.ii.2008, LF (Mey); 1 ♂, NAMIBIA-Exp., ZMB 1992, E. Caprivi, Katima Mulilo, 17 29 S/ 24 17 E, lux, 3–8.iii.92 (Mey); 1 ♂, 2 ♀, Namibia, Naukluft, Tsams-Ost, 3.xii.08 (Ebert, Mey & Kune); 4 ♀, Namibia, Mirabib, Central Namib, 27.i.2009, LF (Mey) (gen. slide 548/14, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Namibia, Auas Mts., Windhoek, 1917 m, 25.i.2009 LF (Mey); 1 ♀, RSA, Transvaal, Nylsvley Nat. Res., 29.xi.2004, LF, Turm (Mey); 1 ♂, Namibia, Gamsberg, Rooiklip Farm, 10–11.ix.2012 (Mey) (gen. slide 496/14, O. Bidzilya); 4 ♀, Namibia, Rooisand, Gamsberg Pass, 20.i.2007, aut. Falle (Mey & Ebert) (gen. slide 200/12; 201/12; 42/15, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN); 2 ♂, [Namibia] Gobabeb, Game Reserve No. 3, 12–17.iv.1967 (Potgieter) (gen. slide 57/15, O. Bidzilya); 3 ♂, S.W.Afr., Namib, Gobabeb, 23.24 S – 15.03 E, 3.x.1974: E-Y447, light trap (Endrödy-Younga) (gen. slide 35/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Abachaus, SWA, xii.1946 (Hobohm) (gen. slide 16/15, O. Bidzilya) (all TMSA); 1 ♂, South Africa, Kgalagadi, Transfrontier Park, Mata Mata, 950 m, 18.xii.2009, 25 15 403 S; 021 38 427 E (Wieser) (gen. slide 513/14, O. Bidzilya) (LMK); 1 ♀, Zimbabwe, 6–10.iv.1954 (Janse) (gen. slide 19/15, O. Bidzilya) (all TMSA); 1 ♂, Kenya: Rift Valley, Logumgum 1000 m, 0°27’N, 36°05’E, e.l. Acacia tortilis, em. 1.ix.2007 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 1362, O. Bidzilya) (coll. Agassiz).

Diagnosis

The species is recognizable externally by the white or light grey forewing with a black dash at base of costa, two black dashes at base of fold and three distinct black spots in cell. The male genitalia differ from the rest of Aphanostola species in the very short uncus in combination with apically narrowed saccus, the long, strongly curved gnathos, the basal projection of the phallus broadened at apex and the presence of small cornuti in the vesica. The female genitalia can be recognized unmistakably by the shape of the antrum and by the broad ductus bursae bearing a lateral appendix.

Description

Adult (Figs 1–3). Wingspan 7.2–8.4 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae light grey to white; labial palpus up-curved, segment two black with white apex, segment three white with broad black ring in middle; antenna in male thicker than in female, scape brown with some white scales beneath, other segments brown with white rings. Forewing white to light grey, costal margin black from base to 1/3 length, single black scales sparsely scattered along costal and dorsal margins; two black dashes in fold, sometimes merging; two black spots at base of cell and one black spot in corner of cell; cilia white, black-tipped. Hindwing white to greyish white.

Figures 1–21.

Adults of Aphanostola spp. (scale bar 1.0 mm) 1. A. acaciae sp. n., Namibia, Brandberg (gen. slide 73/05); 2. A. acaciae sp. n., Namibia, Mirabib (gen. slide 548/14); 3. A. acaciae sp. n., Kenya, Logumgum (gen. slide 1362); 4. A. pentastigma, HT, RSA, Pretoria; 5. A. pentastigma, Kenya, L. Naivasha; 6. A. morogorensis sp. n., HT, Tanzania, Morogoro Town; 7. A. calderae sp. n., RSA, Asante-Sana; 8. A. calderae sp. n., HT, RSA, Asante-Sana; 9. A. kenyella sp. n., Kenya, between Limuru and Mai Mahiu (gen. slide 1497); 10. A. kenyella sp. n., HT, Kenya, between Limuru and Mai Mahiu; 11. A. kruegeri sp. n., RSA, Pretoria (gen. slide 8/15); 12. A. alternella sp. n., HT, Kenya, Turi; 13. A. antennata sp. n., HT, Namibia, Popa Falls; 14. A. antennata sp. n., RSA, Nwanedzi (gen. slide 36/15); 15. A. antennata sp. n., Namibia, Kavango; 16. A. rooiklipella sp. n., HT, Namibia, Rooiklip Farm; 17. A. griseella sp. n., HT, Namibia, Grootfontein; 18. A. griseella sp. n., Kenya, Nakuru NP (gen. slide 596/14); 19. A. centripunctella sp. n., Namibia, E. Caprivi (gen. slide 76/05); 20. A. centripunctella sp. n., Namibia, E. Caprivi; 21. A. centripunctella sp. n., Namibia, E. Caprivi (gen. slide 155/15).

Variation. Ground colour of forewing varies from white to light grey.

Male genitalia (Figs 41, 42). Uncus very short, posterior margin weakly emarginated, covered with strong setae; gnathos long, curved by nearly right angle in middle; tegumen broad, with deep and broad anterior emargination; valva weakly narrowed in middle, apical half distinctly inflated, teeth on inner margin indistinct; sacculus narrow, thorn-shaped; vinculum moderately broad with short projections on posterior margin, medial postero-medial incision narrow; saccus broad at base, narrow distally, apex abruptly cut or rounded, exceeding far beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus wide, apex with group of 3–8 very small cornuti and three lateral teeth, basal projection slightly shorter than length of phallus, its apex weakly widened.

Figures 22–39.

Adults of Aphanostola spp. (scale bar 1.0 mm) 22. A. joannoui sp. n., HT, RSA, Hongonyi Lodge; 23. A. joannoui sp. n., RSA, Hongonyi Lodge (209/12); 24. A. namibiensis sp. n., HT, Namibia, Brandberg; 25. A. namibiensis sp. n., Namibia, Auas Mts.; 26. A. brandbergensis sp. n., Namibia, Brandberg (gen. slide 74/05); 27. A. aarviki sp. n., HT, Tanzania, Morogoro Town; 28. A. africanella sp. n., Namibia, Mt. Etjo (gen. slide 597/14); 29. A. africanella sp. n., Namibia, E. Etosha (gen. slide 151/15); 30. A. africanella sp. n., Kenya, Baringo; 31. A. emarginata sp. n., HT, RSA, Mkuzi; 32. A. melliferae sp. n., Kenya, L. Bogoria (gen. slide 143/15); 33. A. melliferae sp. n., HT, Kenya, L. Bogoria; 34. A. maxima sp. n., Ethiopia, Tana-See; 35. A. maxima sp. n., HT, Ethiopia, Tana-See; 36. A. longicornuta sp. n., Kenya, L. Bogoria (gen. slide 577/14); 37. A. longicornuta sp. n., Kenya, Kakamega Forest (gen. slide 590/14); 38. A. longicornuta sp. n., Kenya, Kakamega Forest; 39. A. atripalpis, PT, India, Pusa (gen. slide 411/14).

Figure 40.

Aphanostola spp. Male (a) and female (b) genitalia.

Figures 41–46.

Male genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 41. A. acaciae sp. n., HT, Namibia, 20 km NW Uis (gen. slide 101/05); 42. A. acaciae sp. n., Namibia, Rooiklip Farm (gen. slide 496/14); 43. A. pentastigma, Kenya, L. Naivasha (gen. slide 1357); 44. A. morogorensis sp. n., HT Tanzania, Morogoro Town (gen. slide 2378); 45. A. calderae sp. n., HT, Namibia, Asante-Sana (gen. slide 184/12); 46. A. calderae sp. n., Namibia, Asante-Sana (582/14).

Variation. Uncus sometimes reduced to short, paired hump.

Female genitalia (Fig. 65). Segment VIII weakly sclerotized, distinctly shorter than apophyses anteriores; antrum broad, rounded; left side with a few teeth; sub-ostial sclerite narrow, prolonged with outwardly curved apex; ductus bursae of moderate width in basal 1/3, then very wide with indistinct transition to prolonged corpus bursae, short lateral appendix at 1/3 length; signum absent.

Etymology

The specific epithet refers to the hostplant, Acacia tortilis, of the new species.

Distribution

South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Kenya.

Biology

The larva feeds on Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne (Fabaceae) in Kenya (Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 in press). Adults were collected from late August to early June.

Aphanostola pentastigma (Janse, 1960)

Figs 4, 5, 43, 66, 67

Lanceopenna pentastigma Janse, 1960 – Moths of South Africa, 6 (2): 216, pl. 105, pl. 109f, pl. 121e, pl. 118 h, i.

Aphanostola pentastigma (Janse, 1960) – Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 (in press).

Material examined

Holotype of L. pentastigma, ♀, [South Africa], Pretoria, 28.viii.1937 (Vári) (gen. slide. 8394), L. pentastigma Janse, ♀, Holotype No: 3684. Paratypes: ♂, Pretoria, 30.x.1948 (Vári) (gen. slide 8781), 2 ♂, Gladde Klipkop, 1–9.iii.1954 (Janse) (gen. slide 254/12, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Pretoria, 20.x.1952 (Vári) (gen. slide 260/12, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Pretoria, 10.i.1951 (Vári); 1 ♂, Pretoria, 21.viii.1949 (Vári); 1 ♂, Pretoria, 15.viii.1953, e.l. Acacia sp. (Vári); 1 ♂, Pretoria, 8.i.1975 (Vári) (gen. slide 32/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 S, Pafuri, K.N.P. Survey, 8.v.1975 (Potgieter & Scoble) (gen. slide 44/15, O. Bidzilya) (all TMSA); 1 ♀, Zimbabwe, 6-10. iv.1954 (Janse); 1 ♀, Kei River Bridge, 5-6.ii.1955 (Janse) (slide venation 2913) (TMSA); 9 ♂, 9 ♀, Kenya: Rift Valley, L. Naivasha 1900 m, 0°47’S, 36°24’E, l. on Acacia xanthophloea, em. 18-23.xi, 4-10.xii.2003 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 1357♂; 1358♀, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, KENYA: Rift Valley, L. Naivasha 2000 m, 0°45’S, 36°24’E, ex l. on Acacia xanthophloea, em. 27.iv.2003 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 1357♂; 614/14♀, O. Bidzilya) (coll. Agassiz); 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Kenya, Nakuru National Park, Makalia Falls Camp Site, 00°25’S 036°04’E, 1830 m, 11.x.2001 (J. De Prins) (BMNH).

Diagnosis

L. pentastigma is recognizable externally by the narrow, prolonged forewing with four black spots in cell and two black spots on costal margin. The male genitalia resemble those of A. acaciae sp. n., but the uncus is longer, the saccus is narrower, the phallus lacks cornuti and teeth, and the basal projection is shifted nearly to the middle. The female genitalia differ from the other Aphanostola species in the presence of numerous spikes on the wall of the corpus bursae.

Redescription

Adult (Figs 4, 5). Wingspan 7.2-8.0 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae covered with grey black-tipped scales, frons light grey; labial palpus weakly up-curved, pale with broad black medial belts, segment two whitish on inner surface; antenna in male finely ciliated and thicker than antenna in female, scape black, other antennal segments grey with narrow black rings at base. Forewing grey densely suffused with brown, black spot just at base, at 1/4 and 1/3 of costal margin; four black spots in cell: two in fold, one in middle under costal margin and last one in corner of cell; diffuse black spot at 2/3 of dorsal margin, apex mottled with black, termen black spotted; cilia grey. Hindwing grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 43). Uncus more than two times broader than long, posterior margin with broad and shallow emargination, densely covered with strong setae; gnathos long, curved before middle, weakly broadened in distal portion, with pointed tip; tegumen broad, with deep and broad anterior emargination; distal half of valva gradually widened towards rounded apex, inner margin with very small tooth; sacculus narrow, beak-shaped; vinculum moderately broad with short projections on posterior margin, postero-medial incision narrow; saccus broad at base, triangular, apex weakly pointed, slightly exceeding beyond the apex of pedunculus; phallus gradually tapered, basal projection narrow, shifted nearly to middle of phallus.

Female genitalia (Figs 66, 67). Segment VIII without modification, weakly sclerotized, distinctly shorter than apophyses anteriores; antrum short, funnel-shaped; sub-ostial sclerite cup-shaped; ductus bursae long, narrow, weakly widened before entrance to globular corpus bursae; signum absent, but corpus bursae covered with a number of teeth and spikes.

Variation. The specimens from Kenya have no teeth on the wall of the corpus bursae, only spikes are present, and their number is much smaller than in females from South Africa; the corpus bursae is distinctly smaller too, the ductus bursae is broader, the transition to the corpus bursae is more gradual.

Distribution

South Africa, Zimbabwe, Kenya.

Biology

Larva feeds on Acacia xanthophloea Benth. (Fabaceae) in Kenya (Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 in press) and in Acacia sp. in South Africa. Adults were observed from late August to early April, up to 1830 m elevation in Kenya.

Notes

Lanceopenna pentastigma was described from nine specimens of both sexes collected in South Africa and Zimbabwe. We were able to examine the type series. The genitalia of both sexes match well with those of Aphanostola, therefore the species was transferred to this genus (Bidzilya and Agassiz 2016 in press).

The specimens from Kenya agree well externally with specimens from the type series and also in the male genitalia, but differ in some details in the female genitalia (see above). However, we do not consider these to be separate species.

Aphanostola morogorensis Bidzilya, sp. n.

Figs 6, 44, 68

Type material

Holotype ♂, Tanzania, Morogoro, Morogoro Town, 20.ix.1992 (Aarvik) (gen. slide 2378, O. Bidzilya) (MNHO). Paratype: 1 ♀, same data as holotype but 13.ix.1992 (gen. slide 2375, O. Bidzilya) (MNHO).

Diagnosis

The new species is very similar externally to A. aarviki sp. n., but larger, the forewing is narrower and black spot on ¾ of dorsum is larger. The male genitalia are most close to those of A. acaciella sp. n. but differ in the longer saccus, the bigger vincular projections, a slenderer phallus and in other details. The female genitalia remotely resemble those of A. africanella sp. n., but the antrum is not developed and the signum is larger, rounded rather than elongated.

Description

Adult (Fig. 6). Wingspan 7.1 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae light brown, frons lighter, dark yellow, labial palpus yellow with broad black medial rings, scape brown, other segments brown with yellowish rings; forewing yellow, costal margin and subapical area mottled with black, two black spots just at base of costal margin and middle width near the base, black spot in middle of cell and another prolonged spot below near dorsum, two black spots in 2/3 near dorsal margin; cilia grey. Hindwing grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 44). Uncus very short, posterior margin weakly emarginated, with strong long setae; gnathos long, evenly curved in basal half, distal portion straight, weakly widened before narrow tip; tegumen broad, with deep and broad anterior emargination; valva straight, apical half distinctly inflated, curved outwardly; sacculus narrow, digitate, straight, weakly constricted before apex; vinculum moderately broad, posterior margin with broad, comparatively big medial projections, lateral projection very small, tooth-shaped, postero-medial incision narrow; saccus parallel-sided, apex tapered, far exceeding beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus narrow, vesica with three small cornuti, basal projection extending from 1/3 length, slightly shorter than phallus.

Female genitalia (Fig. 68). Segment VIII weakly sclerotized, distinctly shorter than apophyses anteriores; apophyses posteriores very long, slender; antrum short, narrow; sub-ostial sclerite rounded, edged posteriorly; ductus bursae long, narrow, gradually broadened in distal half towards rounded corpus bursae; signum a big rounded plate densely covered with small spikes, with tapered posterior process.

Etymology

The name refers to the type locality.

Distribution

Tanzania.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The adults have been collected in September.

Aphanostola calderae Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 7, 8, 45, 46

Type material

Holotype ♂, [South Africa], RSA, East.[ern] Cape, Sneeuberg [area], Asante-Sana, 2.-6. iv.2011 (Mey) (gen. slide 184/12, O. Bidzilya) (MfN). Paratypes: 5 ♂, same locality, 22-26.i.2012 (Mey) (gen. slide 582/14; 609/14, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN).

Diagnosis

The new species is well recognizable externally by the yellow-white forewing with black markings. The male genitalia resemble those of A. acaciae sp. n. but differ in the longer uncus, the inner margin of the valva bearing a medial thorn, the sacculus not constricted before apex, the triangular saccus, and the shorter process of the phallus.

Description

Adult (Figs 7, 8). Wingspan 7.1-7.5 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae white, labial palpus weakly up-curved, brown with white apical rings, inner surface white; antenna dark brown, ciliated in male; forewing yellow-white, black dot in middle of cell, black dash in middle of fold, black spot on 2/3 near dorsal margin, a few black dots along termen, cilia white. Hindwing and cilia white.

Male genitalia (Figs 45, 46). Uncus short, twice as broad as long, covered with strong, long setae, posterior margin weakly emarginated in middle; gnathos narrow, weakly curved, sickle-shaped; tegumen as a right angle, anterior margin deeply emarginated; basal half of valva straight, basal half of inner margin strongly sclerotized, terminating in a short thorn in the middle of valva length, distal part inflated, hairy, far exceeding top of uncus; sacculus narrow to moderately wide, prolonged, apex abruptly cut; vinculum moderately broad, posterior margin with very short medial and short triangular lateral humps, postero-medial incision relatively broad; saccus a right-angled triangle or slightly elongated; phallus comparatively wide, straight, edges finely serrated in apical 1/4, apex abruptly cut, about as long as length of valva, basal projection shorter than phallus, narrow, pointed.

Female. Unknown.

Etymology

The name refers to the location of the game farm Asante Sana in the escarpment, where the landscape is reminiscent of a caldera.

Distribution

South Africa.

Biology

Host plant unknown. Adults were collected late January and early April.

Aphanostola kenyella Bidzilya & Agassiz, sp. n.

Figs 9, 10, 47

Type material

Holotype ♂, Kenya, Central, Escarpment, between Limuru and Mai Mahiu, 01°02’09”S, 36°35’58” E, 1850 m, M.V., light, 14.viii.1999 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 578/14, O. Bidzilya) (coll. Agassiz). Paratype: ♂, same data as holotype (gen. slide 1497, O. Bidzilya) (coll. Agassiz).

Diagnosis

A. kenyella sp. n. is recognizable externally by the dark, nearly entirely black forewing and comparatively large size. The male genitalia are characterized by the broad sacculus, the narrow saccus and the phallus with distinct lateral teeth on the tip.

Description

Adult (Figs 9, 10). Wingspan 8.0-8.2 mm. Head and thorax brown, frons light brown, labial palpus weakly up-curved, segment two black with white apex, segment three black with white ring at base, apex white, scape black, other segments black with narrow whitish rings at base, finely ciliated by male; tegulae black with rare brown tipped scales; ground colour of forewing black to light brown, diffuse light brown medial fascia from ½ to 2/3 length, greyish indistinct spots on ¾ length on both margins, light brown sub-apical area separated with black pattern of irregular shape from light brown medial fascia, cilia brown, black-tipped. Hindwing grey.

Variation. Forewing, head and thorax varies from those of described above to dark, nearly uniformly black.

Male genitalia (Fig. 47). Uncus twice as broad as long, posterior margin with deep v-shaped medial incision; gnathos strongly curved, apical ¼ weakly widened; tegumen twice as long as broad, anteromedial incision deep and broad; valva straight, inner margin strongly sclerotized, terminating in a short thorn merged with the posterior margin of the sacculus; sacculus stout, sub-triangular, broader than valva; vinculum slightly broader than long, posterior margin with short triangular medial projections, medial incision deep and narrow, lateral projections short, hump-shaped, placed very close to sacculus; saccus narrow, far exceeding beyond the tip of pedunculus; phallus about as long as valva, gradually narrowed apically, with distinct lateral teeth on apex, basal projection narrow, not reaching the tip of phallus.

Figures 47–52.

Male genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 47. A. kenyella sp. n., Kenya, between Limuru and Mai Mahiu (gen. slide 1497); 48. A. kruegeri sp. n. , RSA, Pretoria (gen. slide 4/15); 49. A. alternella sp. n., HT, Kenya, Turi (gen. slide 307/14); 50. A. antennata sp. n., Namibia, Popa Falls (gen. slide 54/08); 51. A. rooiklipella sp. n., Namibia, Omatako (gen. slide 213/12); 52. A. centripunctella sp. n., Namibia, Brandberg (gen. slide 106/05).

Female. Unknown.

Etymology

The species name refers to the country of occurrence of the new species.

Distribution

Kenya.

Biology

Host plant unknown. The specimens from the type-series were collected in mid-August at 1850 m elevation.

Aphanostola kruegeri Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 11, 48, 81

Type material

Holotype ♀, [South Africa] Pretoria, 1.ii.1951 (Vári) (gen. slide 8/15, O. Bidzilya) (TMSA). Paratypes: 1 ♂, same data as holotype but 19.x.1951 (gen. slide 6/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, same data but 18.i.1950 (gen. slide 8332); 1 ♂, Pretoria N, 26.i.1954 (Vári) (gen. slide 4/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Pretoria N, 27.i.1951 (gen. slide 11/15, O. Bidzilya) (all TMSA).

Diagnosis

The new species is externally very similar to A. emarginata sp. n. in having brown forewing, but the forewing is densely black irrorated. The male genitalia are defined by the very short basal projection of the phallus. The elongated narrow subostial sclerite and the narrow signum are characteristic for the female genitalia.

Description

Adult (Fig. 11). Wingspan 7.3–8.1 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae covered with grey brown-tipped scales, labial palpus brown, segment two mixed with grey on inner side, segment three with white medial belt and white apex, antenna in male thicker than antenna in female, finely ciliated, scape brown, flagellum with alternated brown and whitish rings; forewing brown, costal margin mottled with black, diffuse black spot at 2/3 on both margins, black dot in fold, paired black spots in cell, apical ¼ scattered with black, cilia grey, black tipped. Hindwing light grey.

Variation. Some specimens with blackish dorsal margin of forewing.

Male genitalia (Fig. 48). Uncus broader than long, posterior margin distinctly emarginated; gnathos long, gradually curved in basal half, weakly broadened before pointed tip; tegumen sub-trapezoidal, anterior margin twice as long as posterior margin, anteromedial emargination broad, moderately deep; basal half of valva straight, inner margin with distinct thorn just after sacculus, distal half narrow, densely haired, apex rounded; sacculus stout, triangular, broader than valva; vinculum moderately broad, medial projections short, rounded, medial incision very narrow; saccus basally broad, then tapered, far exceeding beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus weakly narrowed apically, basal projection narrow, nearly reaching tip of phallus.

Female genitalia (Fig. 81). Segment VIII slightly longer than broad, evenly sclerotized, apophyses anteriores about 2.5 times longer than segment VIII; antrum funnel-shaped; sub-ostial sclerite sub-ovate with lateral folds; ductus bursae narrow in posterior part, then broadened gradually to broad corpus bursae; signum narrow, elongate.

Etymology

The species is dedicated to Martin Krüger, Lepidoptera curator in the TMSA, for his continuous help during our work in the collections of the TMSA.

Distribution

South Africa.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The adults were collected in October, January and February.

Aphanostola alternella Bidzilya & Agassiz, sp. n.

Figs 12, 49

Type material

Holotype ♂, Kenya, Rift valley, Turi, 8000ft, 11.iii.2000 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 307/14 (=1538), O. Bidzilya) (coll. Agassiz).

Diagnosis

The new species can be reliably separated from A. joannoui sp. n., A. antennata sp. n. and A. longicornuta sp. n. by the study of the genitalia. The male genitalia are most similar to those of A. kruegeri sp. n. but the sacculus is longer, the gnathos is narrower and the basal projection of the phallus is longer than in the mentioned species.

Description

Adult (Fig. 12). Wingspan 7.0 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae greyish-brown, labial palpus brown mottled with black, segment two mixed with grey on inner side, segment three with white medial belt and white apex, antenna in male moderately thick, finely ciliated, scape brown, flagellum with alternating brown and whitish rings; forewing grey, costal margin and apical 1/4 mottled with black, two black spots in cell; cilia grey, black tipped; hindwing light grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 49). Uncus heart-shaped, posterior margin with deep medial emargination; gnathos long, narrow, slightly broadened before apex, gradually curved in basal half; tegumen sub-trapezoidal, anterior margin twice as long as posterior margin, anteromedial emargination broad, moderately deep; basal part of valva straight inner margin with distinct narrow thorn just after the sacculus, distal part densely haired, apex rounded; sacculus stout, elongated, as broad as valva, narrowed towards pointed apex, outer margin strongly curved; vinculum moderately broad, medial projections deep and narrow, medial incision very narrow; saccus basally broad, then tapered, slightly exceeding beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus weakly narrowed apically, basal projection narrow, reaching to ¾ length of phallus.

Female. Unknown.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from “alternarius” (Latin), alternating, which refers to the alternating brown and white rings of the antenna.

Distribution

Kenya.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The adult moth was collected in March at an altitude of 2400 m.

Aphanostola antennata Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 13–15, 50, 69

Aphanostola sp. – Mey and Kühne 2014: 241.

Type material

Holotype ♂, NAMIBIA-Exp., ZMB 1992, Kavango: Popa Falls, 18 07S/ 21 35 E, lux., 26.ii.–3.iii.92 (Mey) (MfN). Paratypes: 12 ♂, 12 ♀, NAMIBIA-Exp., ZMB 1992, Kavango: Popa Falls, 18 07S/ 21 35 E, lux., 26.ii–3.iii.1992 (Mey) (gen. slide 206/12♀; 214/12♂; 433/07♂; 41/15♂, O. Bidzilya); 7 ♂, 2 ♀, NAMIBIA-Exp., ZMB 1992, East Caprivi: Mudumu NP: Nakatwa, 18 10 S/ 23 26 E, lux., 8–13.iii.92 (Mey); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Popa-Falls, Okavango River, 23–24.ii.1993 (Mey & Ebert) (gen. slide 54/08♂, O. Bidzilya; ♀ in glycerol); 1 ♀, same data but 13.xii.1993 (gen. slide 167/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Namibia, Mt. Etjo, 30 km E Kalkrand, 14.iii.2005, LF (Mey); 1 ♀, [South Africa], RSA, Mpumalanga, Hongonyi Lodge, S 24 27,17 E 31 4,56, 30. iv–1.v.2010, LF (Mey & Kühne) (gen. slide 478/14, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN); 1 ♂, [RSA] Skukuza, 3.iv.1952 (Vári) (gen. slide 579/14, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Satara, 27.iii.1952 (Janse & Vári)) (gen. slide 27/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Nwanedzi, K.N.P. Survey, 30.iv–1.v.1968 (Potgieter & Goode) (gen. slide 36/15, O. Bidzilya) (all TMSA).

Diagnosis

The new species can be reliably separated from A. joannoui sp. n., A. longicornuta sp. n., and A. alternella sp. n. by comparing the genitalia. The males can be recognized further by the extremely thickened antennae. The male genitalia are similar to those of A. calderae sp. n., but can be easily recognized by the short phallus, the short postero-medial incison of the vinculum and the more prolonged tegumen. The female genitalia are characterized by the unique spinose signum and V-shaped antrum.

Description

Adult (Figs 13–15). Wingspan 6.5–8.0 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae covered with grey black-tipped scales, frons off-white, labial palpus weakly up-curved, segment two black with whitish scales at base, segment three black with white basal, medial and apical rings, inner surface lighter, greyish, antenna very thick in male, thin in female, scape black, other antennal segments black with narrow whitish rings at base, underside greyish, finely ciliated by male; forewing grey densely suffused with brown along margins and particularly on apex, four diffuse brown dots in cell, cilia grey, brown-tipped; hindwing grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 50). Uncus twice as broad as long, posterior margin slightly emarginated; gnathos evenly curved, of even width except for pointed tip; tegumen comparatively long, weakly narrowed distally, anteromedial emargination large, triangular; valva straight in basal half, distal portion turned outwards, weakly widened, apex rounded; sacculus narrow to moderately wide, thorn- or finger-shaped; vinculum broad, posterior margin with very short medial humps, postero-medial incision relatively broad but short; saccus triangular, tapered, slightly exceeding beyond the top of pedunculus; phallus short, about 2.5 times longer than broad, apex abruptly cut, basal projection relatively broad, distinctly shorter than phallus with rounded apex.

Female genitalia (Fig. 69). Segment VIII twice as long as broad, evenly sclerotized; apophyses anteriores moderately thick, twice as long as segment VIII; antrum short, funnel-shaped; lateral sub-ostial sclerite narrow horn-shaped; ductus bursae gradually broadened towards large, globular corpus bursae; signum a spinose plate.

Etymology

The specific name refers to the thickened antenna of the male.

Distribution

South Africa, Namibia.

Biology

Host plant unknown. Adults occur from November to December and from February to early May.

Aphanostola rooiklipella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 16, 51, 70, 71, 71a

Type material

Holotype ♀, Namibia, Gamsb[er]g., Rooiklip Farm, 10–11.ix.20012, LF (Mey) (MfN). Paratypes: 8 ♀, same data as holotype (gen. slide 495/14; 547/14; 554/14, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Namibia, Rooisand, Gamsberg Pass, 20.i.2007, aut[omatische] Falle (Mey & Ebert) (gen. slide 203/12, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Namibia, Omatako Ranch, LF, 22–23.iii.2003 (Mey) (gen. slide 213/12♂, 66/15♀, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Namibia, Otjiwarongo, Hohenfels, 25–27.viii.2012, LF (Mey) (gen. slide 561/14, O. Bidzilya) (MfN); 1 ♀, RSA, Natal, Mkuzi, [15’sq NW cnr, 27 30’S, 32 05’E], 23-26.iv.1982 (Scoble, Laurenson & Kroon) (gen. slide 45/15, O. Bidzilya) (TMSA).

Diagnosis

The new species can reliably be separated from A. melliferae sp. n. and A. africanella sp. n. by the genitalia. The male genitalia most resemble those of A. acaciae sp. n., but are well recognizable by the presence of the big rounded lateral, vincular projections in combination with sub-rectangular tegumen and apically tapered phallus. The female genitalia resemble those of A. griseella sp. n., but the antrum is distinctly longer than the apophyses anteriores in A. rooiklipella sp. n. whereas the antrum in A. griseella sp. n. is sub-equal in length to apophyses anteriores; moreover the sub-ostial sclerite in A. griseella sp. n. is shorter and having shorter posterior projections.

Description

Adult (Fig. 16). Wingspan 6.2-6.4 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae covered with grey black-tipped scales, frons off-white, labial palpus weakly up-curved, segment two black with whitish scales at base, segment three black with white basal, medial and apical rings, inner surface lighter, greyish, antenna thick in male, thin in female, finely ciliated in both sexes, scape black, other antennal segments black with narrow whitish rings at base, underside greyish; forewing light grey densely suffused with brown along margins and particularly on apex, three prolonged brown spots in cell, diffuse brown dash in fold, cilia grey, brown-tipped; hindwing grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 51). Uncus about as broader as long, weakly widened apically, posterior margin slightly emarginated; gnathos sickle-shaped; tegumen sub-rectangular, 1.5 times longer than broad, anterior margin with comparatively shallow, rounded emargination; valva straight, inner margin with distinct thorn at 2/3 length, distal 1/3 inflated, hairy; sacculus prolonged, narrow, curved inwardly; vinculum narrow, posterior margin with short medial and long lateral projections, anteromedial emargination shallow; saccus broad, triangular, slightly exceeding beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus with pointed apex, basal projection arises from 1/3 length of phallus and exceeding nearly to its tip.

Female genitalia (Figs 70, 71, 71a). Segment VIII nearly as long as broad, evenly sclerotized; apophyses anteriores moderately thick, twice as long as segment VIII; antrum long, tubular, exceeding the tips of apophyses anteriores; sub-ostial sclerite sub-rectangular with long posterior projection; ductus bursae narrow; corpus bursae sub-ovate; signum a long sub-triangular plate densely covered with spikes and with medial cord inside.

Etymology

Named after the farm Rooiklip in the escarpment of Namibia.

Distribution

Namibia.

Biology

The host plant unknown. The adults were observed from late August to mid-September, and again in January and in March, which is suggestive for the development of two generations per year.

Aphanostola griseella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 17, 18, 72, 73

Type material

Holotype ♀, NAMIBIA-Exp., ZMB 1992, Grootfontein: Otavi Lux, 19 38S/ 17 21E, lux., 16.-19.ii.92, leg. Mey (gen. slide 502/14, O. Bidzilya) (MfN). Paratypes: 1 ♀, same data as holotype; 1 ♀, NAMIBIA-Exp., ZMB 1992, Kavango: Katima Mulilo, 17 29S/ 24 17 E, lux., 3–8.iii.92 (Mey) (gen. slide 225/12, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN); 1 ♀, Abachaus, SWA, xii.1946 (Hobohm) (gen. slide 5/15, O. Bidzilya) (TMSA); 1 ♀, South Africa, RSA, Transvaal, Nyslvley, Sericea-Farm, 28-30.xi.2004, LF (Mey) (gen. slide 221/12, O. Bidzilya) (MfN); 1 ♀, Kenya, Nakuru National Park, Makalia Falls Camp Site, 00°27’S 036°04’E, 1855 m, 10.x.2001 (J. De Prins) (gen. slide 596/14, O. Bidzilya) (NHM).

Diagnosis

The species is very similar externally to A. rooiklipella sp. n., A. africanella sp. n. and A. melliferae sp. n., but can be defined by the nearly uniformly grey forewing with poorly expressed black markings in cell. The female genitalia most closely resemble those of A. rooiklipella sp. n. - for the differences see under that species.

Description

Adult (Figs 17, 18). Wingspan 6.7-7.1 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae light grey with a few brown scales, labial palpus brown with narrow white apical rings, antenna in male thick, antenna in female thin, finely ciliated in both sexes, scape brown with a few white scales, other antennal segments brown, whitish-ringed; forewing grey mottled with brown-tipped scales along margins and in subapical area particularly, costal margin brown from base to 1/5 length, two very indistinct brown spots in cell, brown dot on ¾ of dorsal margin, cilia light grey; hindwing grey.

Male. Unknown.

Female genitalia (Figs 72, 73). Segment VIII about as broad as long, evenly sclerotized; apophyses anteriores about 1.5 times longer than segment VIII; antrum tubular, weakly broadened before ductus bursae, sub-equal in length to apophyses anteriores; sub-ostial sclerite trapezoidal with short and narrow posterior projection; ductus bursae of moderate width; corpus bursae large, egg-shaped; signum a prolonged plate densely covered with spikes and with medial cord inside.

Etymology

Derived from “griseus” (Latin), grey, referring to the grey forewings.

Distribution

South Africa, Namibia, Kenya.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The adults were observed in October-November and again in February-March.

Aphanostola centripunctella Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 19–21, 52, 74, 74a

Genus 1, sp. 2. – Bidzilya 2007: 94, figs 3, 6; pl. 5, fig. 4.

Type material

Holotype ♂, NAMIBIA-Exp., ZMB 1992, E. Caprivi, Katima Mulilo, 17 29 S/ 24 17 E, lux, 3.-8.iii.[19]92 (Mey) (gen. slide 542/14, O. Bidzilya) (MfN). Paratypes: 6 ♂, 3 ♀, same data as holotype (gen. slide 508/14♀, 509/14♂; 155/15♂, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Namibia, Brandberg, Tsisab, 1.iii.2002 (Turm) (gen. slide 76/05, O. Bidzilya); 2 ♀, Namibia, nr Uis, Ugab Campsite, 2.iii.2002, 160 W (gen. slide 106/05, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN); 1 ♀, [South Africa], Mpumalanga, Lower Sabi, 26.iii.1962 (Janse & Vári)) (gen. slide 49/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Botswana, Maun c. 20 km W, [c.19 59’S, 23 13’E]. 19.i.1978 (Scoble) (all TMSA).

Diagnosis

The new species is well recognizable externally by the comparatively large size and the forewing with a large brown spot in the middle. The external differences to A. namibiensis sp. n. are explained under that species. The male genitalia are characterized by the sacculus merged with the medial teeth on the inner margin of the valva in combination with the narrow saccus. The female genitalia differ from other Aphanostola species by the shape of the sub-ostial sclerite, the large globular corpus bursae and the brush-formed signum.

Description

Adult (Figs 19–21). Wingspan 7.8–9.0 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae covered with white black-tipped scales, labial palpus up-curved, black, evenly mottled with white scales on inner surface particularly, segment two with narrow white apical ring, antenna in male thick, finely ciliated, antenna in female thin, scape black, other antennal segments black with white basal rings, comparatively thick; forewing white, densely suffused with brown along margins and on apex, large brown, transversally elongated spot in the middle, an indistinct brown dash in fold, a small brown spot in the corner of cell, cilia white, black-tipped; hindwing grey.

Variation. Ground colour of head, thorax and forewing varies from white to light grey, paired black spot on ¾ of dorsal margin expressed in some specimens, medially prolonged spot sometimes divided into two smaller dots. Hindwings in male with light brown scales along margins, particularly on base near dorsal margin.

Male genitalia (Fig. 52). Uncus twice as broad as long, weakly broadened apically, posterior margin nearly straight; gnathos curved abruptly before middle, distal portion slightly widened, tip pointed; tegumen sub-rectangular, length exceeds width two times, anteromedial incision broad, moderately shallow; basal portion of valva moderately wide, distal 2/3 narrow, gradually broadened towards rounded apex; sacculus 1.5 times longer than broad, merged at base with medial thorn on inner margin of valva; vinculum moderately broad, posterior margin with short, triangular, medial projections, medial incision narrow; saccus narrow, apex rounded, clearly exceeding beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus prolonged, apex tapered, basal projection straight, narrow extending nearly to apex of phallus.

Female genitalia (Figs 74, 74a). Segment VIII nearly as long as broad, evenly sclerotized, except for sclerotized patches from the base of apophyses anteriores extending posteriorely to half length of segment VIII; antrum short, funnel-shaped; sub-ostial sclerite big, of irregular shape; apophyses anteriores about three times longer than segment VIII; ductus bursae long, slender papillated in proximal half, with abrupt transition to large, globular corpus bursae; signum prolonged, brush-like.

Etymology

Named after the brown spot in the middle of the forewing.

Distribution

Namibia, Botswana, South Africa.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The adults were collected in January and March.

Aphanostola joannoui Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 22, 23, 53, 75, 75a

Type material

Holotype ♂, [South Africa] RSA, Mpumalanga, Hongonyi Lodge, S24°27,17’, E31°4,56’, 30.iv–1.v.2010, LF (Mey & Kühne) (MfN). Paratypes: 8 ♂, 2 ♀ same data as holotype (gen. slide 28/12♂, W. Mey, 81/12♀; 82/12♂; 208/12♂; 209/12♀; 482/14 ♂; 383/14♂, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN); 1 ♂, RSA, Natal, Mkuzi, [15’sq NW cnr, 27 30’S, 32 05’E], 23-26.iv.1982 (Scoble, Laurenson & Kroon) (gen. slide 54/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Punda Milia, K.N.S. Survey, 6-15.v.1975 (Potgieter & Scoble) (gen. slide 21/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Pretoriuskop, 1.iv.1952 (Vári) (gen. slide 10/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Malelane, 24.iii.1952 (Janse & Vári) (gen. slide 40/15, O. Bidzilya) (all TMSA).

Diagnosis

The new species can reliably be separated from A. antennata sp. n. , A. longicornuta sp. n., and A. alternella sp. n. by the genitalia. The male genitalia are well recognizable by the large and broad sacculus. The female genitalia are characterized by the unmodified sclerite VIII in combination with the funnel-shaped antrum and the small corpus bursae.

Description

Adult (Figs 22, 23). Wingspan 6.0–7.2 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae covered with grey black-tipped scales, frons off-white, labial palpus weakly up-curved, black with white apex, antenna in male thick, finely ciliated, antenna in female thin, scape black, other antennal segments black with narrow whitish rings at base, underside greyish; forewing grey densely suffused with brown along margins and particularly on apex, three very indistinct brown spots in cell area, cilia grey, brown-tipped; hindwing grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 53). Uncus as broad as long, weakly widened distally, posterior margin straight or weakly emarginated; gnathos weakly curved at ¼, wide at base, tapered apically with pointed tip; distal portion of tegumen rectangular, basal part broad, anteromedial emargination broadly rounded; basal part of valva comparatively broad, distal portion distinctly inflated, apex rounded, shortly ciliated; sacculus large, broader than distal portion of valva, with curved posterior margin; vinculum moderately broad, posterior margin without medial projections, postero-medial incision deep and narrow; saccus basally broad, then strongly narrowed, apex rounded; phallus gradually tapered, basal projection distinctly shorter than phallus, narrow, apically weakly inflated.

Figures 53–58.

Male genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 53. A. joannoui sp. n., HT, RSA, Hongonyi Lodge (gen. slide 208/12); 54. A. namibiensis sp. n., Namibia, Brandberg (gen. slide 107/05); 55. A. brandbergensis sp. n., Namibia, Brandberg (gen. slide 103/05); 56. A. aarviki sp. n., HT, Tanzania, Morogoro Town (gen. slide 2380); 57. A. africanella sp. n., HT, Namibia, Omatjete Farm (gen. slide 553/14); 58. A. africanella sp. n., Namibia, Okahanja (gen. slide 198/12).

Female genitalia (Figs 75, 75a). Segment VIII weakly sclerotized, rectangular, twice as long as broad, without modifications; antrum funnel-shaped, strongly edged; sub-ostial sclerite a transversely prolonged plate; apophyses anteriores moderately thick, distinctly longer than segment VIII; ductus bursae long, slender, papillated in middle portion; corpus bursae small, rounded; signum absent.

Variation. The antrum is variable in width.

Etymology

Named in memory of the lepidopterist John Joannou (1949-2013), who participated in the collecting campaign around Hongonyi Lodge with the second author in 2010.

Distribution

South Africa.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The adults were collected from late March to mid-May.

Aphanostola namibiensis Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 24, 25, 54, 76

Genus 1, sp. 3. – Bidzilya 2007: 95, fig. 4; pl. 5, fig. 5.

Type material

Holotype ♂, Namibia, Brandberg, Wasserfallfläche, 18.iii.2002, LF, 1940 m (gen. slide 107/05, O. Bidzilya) (MfN). Paratypes: 2 ♂ (1 ex abd. miss.), Namibia, Auas Mt., Kromhuk, 1850 m, 24.i.2009, LF (Mey); 1 ♀, Namibia, Auas Mt., Windhoek, 1917 m, 25.i.2009, LF (Mey) (gen. slide 465/14♀, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Namibia, E Etosha, Farm Sachsenheim, 29-30.viii.2012 (Mey) (gen. slide 534/14, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN).

Diagnosis

The new species resembles externally A. centripunctella sp. n., but differs by the narrower forewing and the smaller, rounded black spot in the middle. The male genitalia are well recognizable by the shape of the sacculus, deep and comparatively broad medial emargination of the posterior margin of the vinculum, the short saccus and the comparatively long uncus. The female genitalia are characterized by distinctly sclerotized patches on segment VIII, short, digitate sub-ostial sclerites, long ductus bursae and the presence of a belt of spikes on the wall of the corpus bursae.

Description

Adult (Figs 24, 25). Wingspan 9.0–9.1 mm. Head white, neck with some brown-tipped scales, segment two of labial palpus black rarely mottled with white, inner and outer surface white, three white with some black scales, antenna in male thick, finely ciliated, antenna in female thin, scape and other antennal segments black; thorax and tegulae black, white-tipped; hindwing light grey to whitish, black pattern to ¼ of costal margin, in its distal half and in sub-apical area, black dash in fold to mid-length, rounded black spot in middle, diffuse black spot on ¾ near dorsal margin, cilia grey black-tipped; hindwing grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 54). Uncus longer than broad, slightly widened apically, posterior margin shortly ciliated, with distinct triangular, medial incision; gnathos moderately thick, of even width, gradually curved; tegumen twice as long as broad, anterior margin with moderately deep triangular emargination; valva straight, strongly inflated in distal 1/3, apex rounded; sacculus long, narrower than valva, apex distinctly pointed; vinculum broad, posterior margin with deep and wide medial emargination, medial projections short, triangular; saccus short, sub-rectangular, extending to apex of pedunculus; phallus comparatively long, weakly narrowed distally, apex distinctly tapered, basal projection absent.

Female genitalia (Fig. 76). Segment VIII nearly as long as broad, evenly sclerotized, except for distinct, sclerotized patches from the base of apophyses anteriores extending to the posterior margin of segment VIII; antrum weakly broadened, membranous; sub-ostial sclerite short, digitate; apophyses anteriores about 2.5 times longer than segment VIII; ductus bursae long, gradually broadening proximally to sub-ovate corpus bursae; the wall of corpus bursae with ovate belt of spikes; signum absent.

Etymology

The species is named after the country of its occurrence.

Distribution

Namibia.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The adults were observed in late August, January and March up to 1900 m elevation.

Aphanostola brandbergensis Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 26, 55, 77

Genus 1, sp. 4. – Bidzilya 2007: 94, figs 7, 8; pl. 5, fig. 6.

Type material

Holotype ♀, Namibia, Brandberg, Mason Shelter, 6.iii.2002, 1740 m (Mey) (gen. slide 74/05, O. Bidzilya) (MfN). Paratypes: 1 ♂, same data as holotype (gen. slide 103/05, O. Bidzilya); 2 ♂, 1 ♀, same data but 5,6,9.iii.2002; 2 ♂, Namibia, Brandberg, 1100 m, 1.xii.2000, LF (Mey) (gen. slide 82/05, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Namibia, Brandberg, Ugab, 4.xii.2000 (Mey) (gen. slide 80/05, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN).

Diagnosis

The new species can easily be recognized by the cream forewing with black dots and black irroration along costal margin and by its comparatively small size. The male genitalia are well defined by the broad valva, the very short saccus, the shape of valva and other details. The female genitalia are characterized by long apophyses anteriores, prolonged corpus bursae and unmodified sternite VIII.

Description

Adult (Fig. 26). Wingspan 5.8–6.1 mm. Head yellowish-white, labial palpus nearly straight, segment two yellow basally, brown in distal portion, inner surface yellowish-white, segment three brown with yellow apex, antenna in male slightly thicker than in female, scape brown with some white scales, other segments brown with narrow, whitish basal rings; thorax and tegulae yellowish-white, sometimes with a few black scales; forewing cream, mottled with brown mostly along margins and near apex, costal margin brown from base to 1/5 length, three brown spots in cell, two brown spots on ¾ of dorsal margin, diffuse brown spot and a few black dots in termen, cilia white, brown-tipped; hindwing light grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 55). Uncus heart-shaped, short, twice as broad as long, posterior margin straight; gnathos strongly curved at base, distal portion straight, gradually narrowing towards pointed apex; tegumen sub-rectangular, twice as long as broad, anterior margin with deep emargination; valva wide and comparatively short, angled at 150° in the middle, distal half turned outwards, apex rounded, inner margin with distinct, medial thorn placed close to sacculus; sacculus short, triangular and narrow; vinculum narrow, medial projections short, rounded, medial incision short, narrow; saccus weakly developed, very short, extending to apex of pedunculus; phallus as long as tegumen, gradually narrowed distally, apex with short tooth, basal projection absent.

Female genitalia (Fig. 77). Segment VIII twice as long as broad, weakly sclerotized, without modification; apophyses anteriores twice the length of segment VIII and less than half length of apophyses posteriores; ductus bursae narrow, gradually merging into the long corpus bursae; signum absent.

Etymology

The specific name is derived from the Brandberg, the type locality of the new species.

Distribution

Namibia.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. Adults were collected in December and in February up to 1740 m elevation.

Aphanostola aarviki Bidzilya, sp. n.

Figs 27, 56

Type material

Holotype, ♂, Tanzania, Morogoro, Morogoro Town, 11.iv.1992 (Aarvik) (gen. slide 2380, O. Bidzilya) (MNHO).

Diagnosis

The new species remotely resembles externally A. morogorensis sp. n., but is smaller, the forewings are broader and the black spot on ¾ of dorsum is indistinct. The male genitalia somewhat resemble those of A. brandbergensis sp. n., but differ in the short, rounded uncus, longer saccus, slenderer gnathos and the phallus without apical tooth.

Description

Adult (Fig. 27). Wingspan 6.2 mm. Head yellow, labial palpus yellow with brown subapical rings, scape brown with few yellowish scales; other antennal segments brown with broad yellow belts at base; thorax and tegulae yellow, densely mottled with black; forewing yellow, diffuse black spot at base, in middle and on 2/3 of costal margin, black spot in middle of cell that is connected or nearly connected with medial sub-costal spot, indistinct black dot on ¾ of dorsal margin, apex slightly mottled with black; cilia light brown; hindwing light grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 56). Uncus short, broadly rounded; gnathos strongly curved at base, distal portion straight, gradually narrowing towards pointed apex; tegumen broader than long, anterior margin with deep emargination; basal portion of valva wide, inner margin with serrated lobe in basal half and with distinct thorn in the middle, distal portion narrow, digitate, outwardly curved; sacculus short, triangular; vinculum narrow, medial projections very short, hump-shaped, medial incision moderately broad; saccus broad, tapered, apex rounded, exceeding beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus prolonged, weakly narrowed apically, basal projection absent.

Female. Unknown.

Etymology

The species name is dedicated to Leif Aarvik (Natural History Museum, Oslo), the collector of the species.

Distribution

Tanzania.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The holotype was collected in mid-April.

Aphanostola africanella Bidzilya, Agassiz & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 28–30, 57, 58, 78, 79, 79a

Aphanostola sp. 2 – Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 (in press).

Type material

Holotype ♂, Namibia, Kombat, Omatjete Farm, 27.viii.2012, Turm (Mey) (gen. slide 553/14, O. Bidzilya) (MfN). Paratypes: 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Namibia, Kunene, Fort Sesfontein, 5.ix.2009, Turm (Mey) (gen. slide 488/14♂; 489/14♀, O. Bidzilya ); 1 ♀, Namibia, E Etosha, Farm Sachsenheim, 29-30.viii.2012 (Mey) (gen. slide 151/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Namibia, 50 km N Okahandja, 10.-11.i.2007, LF (Mey & Ebert) (gen. slide 198/12, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♀, Popa-Falls, Okawango River, 13.xii.1993 (Mey & Ebert) (gen. slide 162/15♀, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Namibia, Waterberg, Touristencamp, 18.xii.1993 (Mey & Ebert) (gen. slide 584/14, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Namibia, Mt. Etjo, 30 km E Kalkrand, 14.iii.2005, LF (Mey) (gen. slide 597/14, O. Bidzilya) ; 1 ♂, Namibia, Erongo, Kuduberg Farm, 12.-14.i.2007, LF (Mey, Ebert) (all MfN); 1 ♀, South Africa, Pretoria N., ix.1946 (van Son) (gen. slide 31/15, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Zoutpan, Zp bg., 15–30.xi.1932 (van Son) (gen. slide 30/15, O. Bidzilya) (TMSA); 1 ♀, Kenya: Rift Valley, Lake Bogoria E, 1000 m, 0°15’N, 36°7’E, l. Acacia mellifera, em. 22.xi.2005 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 1370, O. Bidzilya); 2 ♀, Kenya: Rift Valley, L. Baringo 1000 m, 0°36’N, 36°00’E, l. Acacia tortilis, em. 25.viii.2007 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 1363, O. Bidzilya ); 2 ♀, KENYA: Rift Valley, L. Baringo 1000 m, 0°36’N, 36°05’E, l. Acacia seyal galls, em. 30.viii.2007 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 1504, O. Bidzilya) (all coll. Agassiz).

Diagnosis

The new species is externally similar to A. rooiklipella sp. n. and A. melliferae sp. n. but differs in genitalia. The male genitalia are well defined by the phallus bearing seven to eight large cornuti in combination with a long saccus and other details. The female genitalia remotely resemble those of A. morogorensis sp. n., but differ in having a distinctly longer antrum and a narrow, rounded signum.

Description

Adult (Figs 28–30). Wingspan 7.1–7.3 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae grey, labial palpus weakly up-curved, light brown with narrow white ring before apex, scape light brown, other segments light brown with narrow whitish basal ring, antenna finely ciliated and very thick in male, moderately thick in female; forewing light grey, rarely covered with brown-tipped scales mainly along margins, costal margin brown from base to ¼, two brown spots in middle, diffuse brown dash in fold, cilia grey, brown-tipped; hindwing grey.

Variation. Black pattern along margins of forewing varies from grey to nearly black.

Male genitalia (Figs 57, 58). Uncus twice as broad as long, posterior margin with short medial emargination; gnathos curved at base, then straight, gradually narrowing towards pointed apex; tegumen gradually narrowing distally, anterior margin with deep rounded emargination; basal half of valva moderately broad, distal half strongly constricted at base, then weakly inflated, apex rounded; sacculus short triangular, merged with the thorn on the inner margin of valva; vinculum moderately broad, posterior margin with short, broad, triangular medial projections, medial emargination deep and narrow; saccus broad at base, distal portion narrow, tapered apically, far exceeding beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus prolonged, tapered apically, with seven to eight big cornuti, which differ in length, basal projection absent.

Female genitalia (Figs 78, 79, 79a). Segment VIII distinctly longer than broad, evenly sclerotized; apophyses anteriores twice as long as segment VIII and half of apophyses posteriors; antrum long, tubular, strongly edged; sub-ostial sclerite rounded; ductus bursae long, narrow, papillated before antrum; ductus bursae sub-ovate; signum a prolonged sclerite densely covered with teeth.

Etymology

The name refers to the obviously wide distribution of the species in Africa.

Distribution

Namibia, Kenya.

Biology

The larva feeds on Acacia mellifera (M. Vahl) Benth. (Fabaceae) in Kenya (Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016). The adults were observed in late August-early September, then in November-January and in March.

Aphanostola emarginata Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 31, 59

Type material

Holotype ♂, [South Africa] RSA, Natal, Mkuzi, [15’sq NW cnr, 27 30’S, 32 05’E], 23–26. Apr. 1982 (Scoble, Laurenson & Kroon) (gen. slide 48/15, O. Bidzilya) (TMSA).

Diagnosis

As far as we can judge from the single male, the new species is most similar to A. kruegeri sp. n. in having brown forewings, but differs in exhibiting a poorly expressed irroration. The male genitalia are well defined by the very deep medial emargination of the posterior margin of the vinculum, a short hump-shaped sacculus and by the absence of the vincular projections.

Description

Adult (Fig. 31). Wingspan 6.0 mm. Head light grey, labial palpus brown, segment two with white upper and inner side, segment three with white medial ring and white apex, antenna in male moderately thick, scape brown, other antennal segments brown, whitish-ringed; thorax and tegulae brown; forewing light brown with dark brown scales particularly along margins and in sub-apical area, cilia grey, brown tipped; hindwing grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 59). Uncus about as broad as long, weakly broadened apically, posterior margin slightly emarginated; gnathos narrow, weakly curved, tapered; tegumen sub-rectangular, anterior margin deeply emarginated; valva broad in basal half, weakly constricted in middle, distal portion outwardly curved and hairy, apex rounded; sacculus short, rounded, hump-shaped; vinculum broad, posterior margin without projections, divided by deep and narrow medial incision into strongly sclerotized rounded lobes, saccus triangular, broad on base, tapered; phallus long and narrow, weakly narrowed apically, without basal projection.

Figures 59–64.

Male genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 59. A. emarginata sp. n., HT, RSA, Mkuzi (gen. slide 48/15); 60. A. melliferae sp. n., Kenya, L. Bogoria (gen. slode 1549); 61. A. melliferae sp. n., Namibia, Sandveld (gen. slide 457/07); 62. A. maxima sp. n., HT, Ethiopia, Tana-See (gen. slide 427/07); 63. A. longicornuta sp. n., Namibia, Etosha (gen. slide 503/14); 64. A. atripalpis, India, Pusa, PT (gen. slide 411/14).

Female. Unknown.

Etymology

Derived from “emarginatus” (Latin), excised, referring to the excised vinculum in the male genitalia.

Distribution

South Africa.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The holotype was collected in late April.

Aphanostola melliferae Bidzilya, Agassiz & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 32, 33, 60, 61, 80

Aphanostola sp. 4 – Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 (in press).

Type material

Holotype ♀, Kenya: Rift Valley, Lake Bogoria, 1000 m, 0°15’N, 36°05’E, l. Acacia mellifera, em. 30.viii.2007 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 142/15, O. Bidzilya) (coll. Agassiz). Paratypes: 1♂, 2♀, same data as holotype (gen. slide 1549♂, 1550♀, O. Bidzilya); 1♂, KENYA: Rift Valley, Lake Bogoria, 1000 m, 0°21’N, 36°04’E, l. Acacia mellifera, em. 6.xi.2007 (Agassiz); 1♀, KENYA: Rift Valley, Lake Bogoria, 1000 m, 0°21’N, 36°04’E, l. Acacia mellifera, em. 26.viii.2007 (Agassiz); 1♂, 1♀, KENYA: Rift Valley, Lake Bogoria, 1000 m, 0°15’N, 36°7’E, l. on Acacia mellifera, em. 23.xi, 2.xii.2005 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 143/15♂, O. Bidzilya); 1♂, KENYA: Rift Valley, Lake Bogoria, 1000 m, 0°21’N, 36°4’E, l. Acacia mellifera, em. 23.xi.2005 (Agassiz) (all coll. Agassiz); 2♂, 1♀, Namibia, Sandveld, 60 km N Gobabis, 22.–26.i.2007, LF (Mey & Ebert) (gen. slide 457/07♂, O. Bidzilya); 1 ♂, Namibia, Omatako Ranch, LF, 22-23.iii.2003 (Mey) (gen. slide 67/15, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN).

Diagnosis

The new species can reliably be separated from A. rooiklipella sp. n., and A. africanella sp. n. by the genitalia. A. antennata sp. n. is very similar to above mentioned species, but differs in broader forewing. A. pentastigma is usually larger that A. melliferae sp. n. the forewing are narrower with black spot at base of costal margin. The male genitalia are well recognizable by very short, weakly sclerotized distal portion of valva, stout broadly rounded sacculus and the shape of the phallus. The female genitalia are defined by a characteristically shaped antrum and sub-ostial sclerites as well as by a strongly sclerotized entrance to the corpus bursae which is unique for Aphanostola.

Description

Adult (Figs 32, 33). Wingspan 7.2–8.1 mm. Head white, labial palpus weakly curved, dark grey with white apex, inner surface white, antenna thick and finely ciliated in male, thinner in female, scape brown, antennal segments light brown with whitish basal rings; head and thorax white to light grey; forewing covered with white brown-tipped scales, costal margin mottled with brown, apex black spotted, narrow black dash in folds, three black spots in cell, cilia grey, brown tipped; hindwing light grey.

Male genitalia (Figs 60, 61). Uncus very short, about 1.5 times broader than long, posterior margin straight; gnathos curved at base, then straight, narrow, strongly pointed apically; tegumen trapezoid anterior margin twice the length of posterior margin, anteromedial emargination deep; valva straight, narrow, basal portion strongly sclerotized, inner margin with long thorn on ¾ length, distal ¼ weakly sclerotized, hairy; sacculus, broader than valva, beak-shaped; vinculum broad, without projections, medial incision deep, narrow; saccus stout, wide, broadly rounded, far exceeding beyond the apex of pedunculus; phallus straight, broad, posterior margin weakly emarginated, base weakly inflated, basal projection absent.

Female genitalia (Fig. 80). Papilla analis sub-ovate; apophyses posteriores long, narrow; apophyses anteriores thick, twice as long as segment VIII; segment VIII sub-rectangular, weakly sclerotized; antrum tubular, strongly edged, broadened in distal half; lateral sub-ostial sclerite prolonged, leaf-shaped, posterior sub-ostial sclerite rounded; ductus bursae narrow, gradually merging into very long and narrow corpus bursae with strongly sclerotized entrance; signum absent.

Etymology

The species is named after the name of its host plant, Acacia mellifera.

Distribution

Kenya, Namibia.

Biology

Larvae feed on Acacia mellifera in Kenya (Agassiz and Bidzilya 2016 in press) and probably also on this tree in Namibia. Adults were observed in late August and late November to early December in Kenya and in January and March in Namibia.

Aphanostola maxima Bidzilya & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 34, 35, 62

Type material

Holotype ♂, [Ethiopia], Äthiopien, 11.-16.i.1996, Tana-See, Bahir-Dar, 1600 m (Mey & Ebert) (gen. slide 427/07, O. Bidzilya) (MfN). Paratypes: 3 ♂, same data as holotype (all MfN).

Diagnosis

A. maxima sp. n. is the largest species of the genus. Besides the big size it is recognizable by comparatively narrow, light brown, uniformly coloured forewing with distinct brown dots in the cell. The male genitalia can be distinguished by broad trapezoidal tegumen, sub-rectangular sacculus, and elongated vinculum.

Description

Adult (Figs 34, 35). Wingspan 9.5–10.5 mm. Head, cream-white, labial palpus up-curved, brown with diffuse grey belts, scape brown, other antennal segments brown with whitish basal rings, moderately thick; thorax and tegulae light brown; forewing light brown, mottled with brown in sub-apical area, diffuse brown spot at base near costal margin, three brown dots in cell, cilia light brown; hindwing grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 62). Uncus heart-shaped, twice as broad as long, posterior margin slightly emarginated medially; gnathos large, curved at right angle in the middle, distal portion straight, apex pointed; tegumen broad, trapezoid, anterior margin twice as long as posterior margin, anteromedial emargination deep, rounded; basal half of valva straight inner margin with distinct thorn just near the sacculus, distal half constricted at base, weakly inflated, densely haired, apex rounded; sacculus sub-rectangular, about as wide as distal part of valva; vinculum long, medial projections absent, medial incision deep and narrow; saccus moderately broad, apex rounded, exceeding beyond apex of pedunculus; phallus parallel-sided, apex tapered, lamina very long, basal projection absent.

Female. Unknown.

Etymology

Derived from “maximus” (Latin), the largest, referring to the large size of the species.

Distribution

Ethiopia.

Biology

The type series was collected in mid-January at 1600 m elevation.

Aphanostola longicornutata Bidzilya, Agassiz & Mey, sp. n.

Figs 36–38, 63, 82

Type material

Holotype ♀, Namibia, E. Etosha, Farm Sachsenheim, 29.-30.viii.2012, LF (Mey) (MfN). Paratypes: 3 ♂, 12 ♀, same data as holotype (486/14♂; 503/14♂; 484/14♀; 485/14♀; 487/14♀, O. Bidzilya); 3 ♀, Namibia, Kunene, Fort Sesfontein, 5.ix.2009, Turm (Mey) (gen. slide 500/14, O. Bidzilya) (all MfN); 1 ♂, Kenya: Rift Valley, L. Bogoria, 3000 ft, 3.vii.1999 (Agassiz) (gen. slide 577/14) (coll. Agassiz); 2 ♂, 1 ♀, Kenya, Kakamega Forest, UDO Camp, 1600 m, 00 21N, 34 52 E (08), 17.iv.2001 (J. De Prins) (gen. slide 589/14♂; 590/14♀, O. Bidzilya) (all BMNH).

Diagnosis

The new species can be separated from the similar A. joannoui sp. n., A. antennata sp. n., and A. alternella sp. n. only by examining the genitalia. The male genitalia can easily be recognized by the presence of a very large, lateral, vincular projection, a long and narrow saccus as well as an extremely long phallus with one large cornutus. The female genitalia are defined by a wrinkled antrum, a narrow, serrated signum, the coiled corpus bursae and by the other details.

Description

Adult (Figs 36–38). Wingspan 5.8–7.0 mm. Head, thorax and tegulae light grey with a few brown-tipped scales, frons slightly lighter, labial palpus nearly straight, black with white apex, inner surface grey, antenna thick in both sexes, finely ciliated by male, scape brown, flagellum with alternate brown and whitish rings; forewing dark grey, margins and apical area suffused with black, two black spots in middle of cell, indistinct black dash in fold, black spot in the corner of cell hidden by black scales, cilia grey, black-tipped; hindwing and cilia light grey.

Variation. The black markings can be reduced so that the forewing looks uniformly grey in some specimens.

Male genitalia (Fig. 63). Uncus very short, posterior margin broadly rounded; gnathos short, strongly curved at base, distal portion straight, gradually narrowed apically; tegumen short, sub-rectangular, anteromedial emargination broad, shallow; valva straight, narrow; sacculus short, beak-shaped; vinculum moderately broad, medial projections short, lateral projections very large, broader than valva, extending to ¾ of its length; medial incision traingular, v-shaped; saccus very long, far exceeding beyond the apex of pedunculus, distal portion very narrow; phallus very long, straight apex broadly rounded, distal portion with big weakly curved cornutus, basal projection narrow, arising from 2/3 length of phallus, vesica with numerous small spikes.

Female genitalia (Fig. 82). Segment VIII about as long as broad, weakly narrowed posteriorly, evenly sclerotized, apophyses anteriores moderately thick, longer than segment VIII; antrum tubular, wrinkled; sub-ostial sclerite sub-ovate; ductus bursae long, coiled before corpus bursae, with sclerotized filament inside of coil; corpus bursae large, pear-shaped; signum a narrow, prolonged plate with serrated margins.

Etymology

Derived from “longus” and “cornutus” (Latin), long resp. cornutus, referring to the unusual long cornutus of the phallus

Distribution

Namibia, Kenya.

Biology

The host plant is unknown. The adults have been collected in late August-early September in Namibia and in mid-April, early July in Kenya.

Aphanostola atripalpis Meyrick, 1931

Figs 39, 64

Aphanostola atripalpis Meyrick, 1931 – Exotic Microlepidoptera 4: 57.

Clarke 1969: VI, pl. 134, figs 1–1c.

Material examined

Lectotype: ♂, India, Pusa, Bihar. R. bred. .6.29, reared from Acacia catechu, Rungi (slide No. 8328) (BMNH).

1 ♂, 6.vi.1929, Pupa on leaves of Acacia cati[sic!]chu, Pusa, Rangi Coll., 5699, Cotype, Aphanostola atripalpis, M., Meyrick det. 1980, Presented by R.L.E. Ford, B.M. 1949-487 (gen. slide 411/14, O. Bidzilya) (BMNH).

Diagnosis

As far as we can judge from rather limited material, A. atripalpis differs from the other species by the uniformly greyish-brown forewings and the whitish head. The male genitalia have a rounded uncus covered with very short setae.

Redescription

Adult (Fig. 39). Wingspan 5.9–6.1 mm. Head whitish, labial palpus weakly up-curved, grey with broad medial ring, antenna thick in male, scape brown, other antennal segments light brown with dark basal rings; forewing, thorax and tegulae covered with grey, brown-tipped scales, forewing uniformly coloured but costal margin and sub-apical area slightly darker, cilia grey; forewing light grey.

Male genitalia (Fig. 64). Uncus rounded, covered with short setae posteriorly; gnathos moderately long, thick, strongly curved at 1/4; tegumen broad, anterior emargination broad and shallow; valva gradually curved, basal portion distinctly edged; sacculus short, sub-rectangular, apex rounded; vinculum moderately broad with short sub-triangular projections on posterior margin, postero-medial incision moderately broad; saccus broad, weakly narrowed apically, apex rounded, extending to apex of pedunculus; phallus short, with triangular apex, basal projection absent, vesical with small cornuti.

Female. Not examined.

Distribution

India.

Biology

Larva feeds on Acacia [Senegalia?] catechu (L.f) P.J.H. Hurter & Mabb. (Fabaceae). Adults emerged in June.

Notes

A. atripalpis was described from two males collected in Bihar, Pusa (India). The adult moth and the venation, and the male genitalia in lateral position, were illustrated by Clarke (1969). We examined the second paratype and prepared the genitalia in unrolling position to compare them with other Aphanostola species.

Figures 65–67.

Female genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 65. A. acaciae sp. n., Namibia, Mirabib (gen. slide 548/14); 66. A. pentastigma, RSA, Pretoria (gen. slide 260/12); 67. A. pentastigma, Kenya, L. Naivasha (gen. slide 614/14).

Figures 68–70.

Female genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 68. A. morogorensis sp. n., Tanzania, Morogoro Town (gen. slide 2375); 69. A. antennata sp. n., Namibia, Popa Falls (gen. slide 206/12); 70. A. rooiklipella sp. n., Namibia, Rooisand (gen. slide 203/12).

Figures 71–73.

Female genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 71. A. rooiklipella sp. n., Namibia, Rooiklip Farm (gen. slide 554/14); 71a. Signum (gen. slide 547/14); 72. A. griseella sp. n., HT, Namibia, Otavi (gen. slide 502/14); 73. A. griseella sp. n., Namibia, Popa Falls (gen. slide 225/12).

Figures 74–76.

Female genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 74. A. centripunctella sp. n., Namibia, Katima Mulilo (gen. slide 508/14); 74a. Signum (gen. slide 76/05); 75. A. joannoui sp. n., RSA, Hongonyi Lodge (gen. slide 81/12); 75a. Subostial sclerite (gen. slide 209/12); 76. A. namibiensis sp. n., Namibia, Etosha (gen. slide 534/14).

Figures 77–79.

Female genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 77. A. brandbergensis sp. n., HT, Namibia, Brandberg (gen. slide 74/05); 78. A. africanella sp. n., Namibia, Fort Sesfontein (gen. slide 489/14); 79. A. africanella sp. n., Kenya, L. Baringo (gen. slide 1363); 79a. Signum (enlarge) (gen. slide 1370).

Figures 80–82.

Female genitalia of Aphanostola spp. 80. A. melliferae sp. n., Kenya, L. Bogoria (gen. slide 1550); 81. A. kruegeri sp. n., RSA, Pretoria (gen. slide 8/15); 82. A. longicornuta sp. n., Namibia, E. Etosha (gen. slide 500/14).

Acknowledgements

We are thankful to Leif Aarvik (NHMO), Jurate De Prins, Kevin Tuck (BMNH), Martin Krüger (TMSA) and Christian Wieser (LMK) for access to their collections and providing material for study. Igor Kostjuk (Kiev) kindly helped us taking the photographs of some specimens.

The first author expresses his gratitude to Jurate De Prins for her assistance during his work in the collection of BMNH, in particular for providing photo equipment.

The visits of the first author to MfN and TMSA were financially supported by German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) and Ernst Mayr Travel Grant from the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University. Field work in South Africa by the second author was supported by the DFG (Me 1085/18).

We are thankful to the editor of DEZ and two reviewers, who made constructive suggestions to improve the manuscript. Authors are acknowledged the MfN for waiving the authors fees.

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